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EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT 

TENTH YEAR 

1904 



SAQQARA MASTABAS 



PART I 



BY 

MARGARET A. MURRAY 

WITH DRAWINGS BY F. HANSARD AND J. MOTHERSOLE; 



AND 



GUROB 



BY • 



L LOAT, F.Z.S. 



LONDON 

BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, PICCADILLY, W. 

1905 



'/ 










\ 



EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT 

TENTH YEAR 
1904 



SAOOARA 



MASTABAS 



PART I 



^^ 



^s^^-^^^' 



BY 



MARGARET A. MURRAY 



LONDON 

BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, PICCADILLY. W 

1905 






f: 



3e> TO .20 / 



^ /O 



LONDON : 
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON LTD., 

ST. JOHN'S HOUSE, Cl.KRKEN WELL,, E.G. 



.1372 



EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT. 



©cneral Committee. 



Lord Avebury, D.C.L., F.R.S., &t. 
Walter Baily. 
Henry Balfour. 

Prof. T. G. Bonney, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Rt. Hon. James Bryce, D.C.L., .\I.P. 
Prof. J. B. Bury, LL.D., Litt.D. 
*tS0MERS Cl.^rke, F.S.A. 

Edward Clodd. 
fW. E. Crum. 
Prof. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. Dill, Litt.D. 

*MlSS ECKENSTEIN. 

Dr. Gregory Foster. 
Dr. J. G. Eraser. 
Alan Gardiner. 
*tPROF. Ernest Gardner. 

Prop-. Percy Gardner, Litt.D., F.B.A., 

F.S.A. 
Rt. Hon. Sir George T. Goldie, KC.M.G. 
Prof. Gowland, V.P.S.A. 
Mrs. J. R. Green. 
Dr. a. C. Haddon, F.R.S. 
Jesse Ha worth. 



Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.LE., F.R.S. 

Dr. a. C. Headlam. 
*SiR Robert Hensley [Chainiian). 

Sir Richard Jebb, O.M., D.C.L., .M.P. 
tPROF. Macalister, F.R.S., F.S.-A. 

Dr. R. W. Macan. 

Prof. Mahaffy, D.D., D.C.L., &c. 
*J. G. Milne, M.A. 

Sir Colin Scott Moncrieff, K.C.M.G. 

Prof. Montague. 

Walter Morrison. 

Dr. Page May. 

Prof. H. F. Pelham, F.B.A., F.S.A. 

Dr. Pinches. 

Dr. G. W. Pkothero, Litt.D., LL.D. 
F.B.A. 

Sir William Richmond, R.A. 

Prof. F. W. Ridgeway, F.B.A. 

Mrs. Strong, LL.D. 
fMRS. Tirard. 

fE. TowRY Whyte, M.A., F.S.A. 
fSiR Charles Wilson, K.C.B., D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 



CCrcasurer. 

*tF. G. Hilton Price, Director of the Society of Antiquaries. 

Sicector. 
Prof. Flinders Petkie, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.B.A., &c. 

IbonocarB Secretaries. 
Mrs. H. F. Pktrie ■» University College, Gower Street, 
*Dr. J. H. Walker ) London, W.C. 



* Executive Committee. t Also on Exploration Fund Committee. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I. 

SECT. 

1. Introductory ...... 

2. Description of cemetery and of work . 

CHAPTER H. 

Steles of Seker-kha-bau and Hathor- 

nefer-hetep. 

3. Seker-kha-bau 

4. Hathor-nefer-hetep . . . . . 

CHAPTER HI. 
Tomb of the Sheikh-el-Beled. 

5. Description of tomb . . . . . 

6. The statues and table of offerings 

7. Construction of tomb . . ... 

CHAPTER IV. 
Tomb of Ka-em-hest. 

8. Description of tomb . . . . . 
g. Construction of tomb . . . . . 

CHAPTER V. 

Double Tomb of Ptahhetep I. and 
Ptahhetep-desher. 

10. Ptalihetep I. Entrance. Stele 

11. Use of plaster Portico and chambers . 

12. Ptahhettp-desher. Portico and chambers 

13. Construction of tomb . . . . . 

CHAPTER VI. 
Tomb of Sekhemka. 

14. Description of tomb . . . . . 

15. The West Wall 

16. ,, „ „ north side of stele 



PAGE 

I 
I 



4 
4 
5 



5 
6 
6 

7 



17. The West Wall, south side of stele 

18. ,, ,, ,, the south side 
ig. ,, ,, ,, the north side 

20. South, East, and North Walls 

21. Outer Walls .... 

22. Construction of tomb . 



CHAPTER VII. 
Tomb of Ptahhetep II. 



PAGE 

9 

9 
10 

10 

10 

10 



23 

24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 

31 
32 
33 

34 
35 
36 
37 

38 



Description of tomb 
Painted chamber . 
Chamber B . 
Chamber C . 



The Stele 

South Wall. Ptahhetep and 

his son 
Dwarf animals 
Farm-women and their 



The upper register 

East Wall . 

North Wall. P""arm-w 
and their offerings 

The upper register 

Doorways 
Chambers D and E . . . 
Fragments ..... 
Construction of tcmb . 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Tomb of Ateta. 



iffer 



omen 



3g. Description of tomb 
40. Construction of tomb 



CHAPTER IX. 

Tomb of User-neter. 



II 
II 
12 

12 
12 

13 
13 

14 
14 

15 

15 
16 

17 
17 
17 
17 



18 
19 



41. Description of tomb 

42. Chamber A . 



19 
19 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



The Stele 
South Wall 
East Wall 
North Wall 



SECT. 

43. Chamber A. 

44- " " 

45- )) " 

46- ,, » 

47. Doorway 

48. Chamber B . 

49. Chambers C and D 

50. Construction of tomb 



CHAPTER X. 
Tomb of Ptahshepses I. 

51. Description of tomb 

52. The Stele 

53. The decoration of the Walls 

54. Construction of tomb . 

CHAPTER XI. 
Tomb of Ptahshepses II. 



Description of tomb 
Stele .... 
South Wall . 
North Wall . 

59. Outer Walls and doorway 

60. Architrave 

61. Construction of tomb . 



55 

56 
57' 
58 



AGE CHAPTER XII. 

19 

20 Miscellaneous Objects and Inscriptions. 

21 

SECT. I'AGE 

22 62. Stele 28 

23 63. Coptic remains ...... 28 

^3 64. J, Inscription. By W^ E. Cruin . . 29 

23 

24 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Offerings. 



24 
25 
25 
25 



65. Hj'aenas 

65. Lotus .... 

67. Papyrus 

68. Sacred oils and perfumes 
6g. Lists of offerings . 



70. 



List of Seker-kha-bau 



71. List of Hathor-nefer-hetep 

72. Lists of Vth Dynasty . 



26 




CHAPTER XIV 


26 
26 




Hieroglyphs. 


27 


73- 


Human beings 


27 


74- 


Living creatures . 


28 
28 


75- 
76. 


Inanimate objects 
Colours of hieroglyphs . 



29 

30 
30 
30 
32 
32 

35 
36 



40 

41 
42 

45 



LIST OF PLATES. 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 
XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 



Stele of Sekerkhabau . . • 3, 32 

Stele of Hathor-nefer-hetep . 4, 35 

Inscriptions of Ka-em-hest, Ptah- 

khun, Sheikh-el-Beled . . • 4> 5 

Inscriptions of Ptahhetep I . . 6 

Stele of Ptahhetep I . . . .6 

Ptahhetep-desher . . . • 6, 7 

Sekhemka 8, 29 

Ptahhetep II. Stele . 

South Wall 



12 
13 

14 
15 
15 



,, ,, East Wall. 

„ North Wall 
,, ,, Akhet-hetep. Farm- 

woman . . 13, 16 
,, ,, Doorways . . • 17 

,, ,, Painted Chamber. 

N.S.W. Walls II, 12 
,, ,, Painted Chamber. 

E. Wall . .11 

,, ,, Altar. Doorways. 

Fragrhents 12, 15, 17 

Ateta. Stele 19 

,, Statue 19 

User-neter. Stele . . . -19 



PLATE 




XXI. 


User-neter 


XXII. 


)J M 


XXIII. 


>J >J 


XXIV. 


)) >» 


XXV. 


il »> 



N. Wall 

E. Wall 

S. Wall 

Niche . 

Architrave. 

Fragments 

XXVI. Ptahshepses I. Stele 

XXVII. „ „ Walls 

XXVIII. Ptahshepses II. Stele 



. 2t 

20, 36 

• 23 



Doorway. 



XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. Plans. 

XXXIII. „ 

XXXIV. „ 

XXXV. „ 



23 
25 
25 
26 



-/' 



27 
26 

28 



„ N. Wall 
„ S. Wall 

,, Doorways. Frag 

ments . . : 
Sekerkhabau. Sheikh-el-Be- 

leJ. Us3r-n2ter . 3, 4, 19 
Ka-em-hest .... 5 
Ptahhetep II. Ptahshepses 

I . . . II, 12, 25 

Ptahhetep I. Sekhemka. 
Ateta. Ptahshepses II 7, 8, 

18, 26 
XXXVI. Stele. Granite statue. Coptic in- 
scription and pottery 3, 28, 29 
XXXVII-XL. Hieroglyphs . . . 40-45 
XLI-XLV. Colours of hieroglyphs . 45,4b 



SAQQAEA MASTABAS 

PART I 



CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



1, Our work during the winter of 1903-4 lay at 
Saqqara ; for, owing to two lady artists having 
volunteered to join the partj-, Prof. Petrie obtained 
for us permission to clear and copy some of the 
many sculptured tombs which were excavated by 
Mariette about the middle of the 19th century. 
Mariette's notes on these tombs were published after 
his death by M. Maspero under the title o{ Lcs Mas- 
tabas de VAncieii Empire, and are the only record of 
these early monuments. The notes consist of ground- 
plans of the tombs, and rapid hand copies of the 
inscriptions, with here and there a sketch of some 
specially interesting piece of sculpture. Since the 
publication in iSgS of the tomb of Ptahhetep by the 
Egyptian Research Account, followed by Mr. Davis' 
work for the Egypt Exploration Fund, it has been 
felt that facsimile copies of the smaller and less 
known mastabas were very desirable, and with two 
artists to help in the copying it was a good oppor- 
tunit}' to start the work. We opened and copied 
nine tombs at Saqqara. and copied one in the Cairo 
Museum. 

Our party consisted of Miss Hansard, Miss Jessie 
Mothersole, and myself; and the division of labour 
\\as that the two artists copied the figures, animals, 
and tables of offerings, while I was responsible for 
all the hieroglyphs and the plans. It is owing to 
the steady work and skill of these two ladies that 
the Egyptian Research Account is able to publish 
facsimile copies often tombs; three of these are not 
recorded by Mariette, whose records of the rest are, 
as I said before, only hand copies of the inscriptions. 
The tombs recorded by Mariette which we opened 
are A 2, C 6 and 7, C 8, D i, D 62, D 63, and 
E2. 

My thanks are due to Prof. Petrie for much kind- 
ness and help, to Mrs. Petrie for kindly copying 
some inscriptions lying in the yard at Mariette's 



House, and to Prof. Kurt Sethe for his valuable 
translations, to be issued later; also to Miss Phoebe 
Slater for help in finishing some of the drawings, 
and to Mr. R. A. Yule for his assistance in drawing 
the plans. It is due entirely to Mrs. Petrie's sugges- 
tion that I made a list of the colours of the hiero- 
glyphs in these early tombs. For this suggestion I 
am sincerely grateful to her. Mr. Weigall has given 
a large amount of time and attention to assisting our 
work in many ways ; and the thanks of our party are 
specially due to him on behalf of the Research 
Account. 

2. The cemetery of Saqqara dates back almost to 
the limit of the historic period, but the bulk of sculp- 
tured tombs belongs to the Vth Dynasty. Through 
the middle of the cemetery is a slight ridge running 
east and west, sloping steeply to the north, more 
gently to the south. To the north lie all the I Vth 
Dynasty tombs which we copied, though the most 
northern one of all is of the Vlth Dynasty, dated 
by the cartouches of Unas and Teta. 

The valley to the south of the ridge is broad and 
flat and constantly used by tourists as a road from 
Mariette's House to the tombs of Mera and Kagemni ; 
to the south of the valley is the high ground on 
which the Step-pyramid stands. It is on the 
northern slope of the ridge and on the south side of 
the valley that, with one exception, our Vth Dynasty 
tombs were found. User-neter is due north of the 
Step-pyramid, close to the enclosure wall ; Ptah- 
hetep II and Ateta adjoin the great mastaba of 
Ptahhetep and Akhethetep published by the Egyptian 
Research Account and the Egypt Exploration 
Fund ; the tombs of Ptahhetep I, Ptahshepses I 
and II, Ka-em-hest, and the Sheikh el Beled are on 
the northern slope; but Sekhem-ka's tomb lies 
north-west of Ptahhetep II and Ateta in ground 
which looks httle if at all disturbed. 

The excavations were conducted nominally by 
Reis Khalifa, working for the Museum authorities, 
and I was therefore obliged to employ a native reis. 

B 



STELES OF SEKER-KHA-BAU AND HATHOR-NEFER-HETEP. 



though this is not the custom of the Egyptian 
Research Account. Under the circumstances, as 
we were not finding objects, the system worked well, 
though I must say, having seen both systems, that 
I prefer working without a rc'is and having the 
workmen under my own direct control. 

M. Maspero very kindly gave directions to Re'i's 
Khalifa to assist me in every way, and as it was 
difficult to find out which were the best tombs to 
open, I took the easier course of visiting Rei's Rubi, 
who had excavated all the tombs for Mariette, and 
asking his advice. Reis Rubi, whose memory of 
these mastabas was still as keen as ever, then gave 




c 


E 




B 




T 


D 


G 


A 


H 



instructions to his son, Reis Khalifa, where to find 
inscribed tombs, with the result shown in the plates 
of this volume. 

It was amusing to see how eager re'ises, workmen 
and guards were over finding inscriptions for me. I 
was hardly allowed to enter any chamber that was 
not maktub, and I had great difficulty in making the 
reis and workmen clear the uninscribed parts of the 
double mastaba of Ptahhetep I and Ptahhetep- 
desher when I wished to measure them for plans. 
In opening a new tomb there was alwaj-s breathless 
excitement till I read the name, which was then 
repeated over and over again by the workmen and 
boys to impress it on their minds, and anything 
which my limited vocabulary allowed me to explain 



was listened to with the greatest interest. I much 
regretted that my command of Arabic was not larger, 
for the men were intelligent and really interested in 
the sculptures. 

There seems to be no typical plan followed in the 
building of the tomb-chapels at Saqqara, except the 
fact that the stele is, as a rule, placed against the 
west wall, facing east, though there are exceptions 
even to this rule. Mariette has drawn a typical 
stele {Mast. p. 52), and has given names to the 
different parts, with the inscriptions usually found 
on them. 

A = Tambour cylindrique = Drum. 

B = Tableau = Panel. 

C = Linteau superieur = Upper band. 

D = Linteau inferieur = Lower band. 

EF = Montants principaux = Outer jambs. 

GH = Petits montants = Inner jambs. 

Mariette's plans proved to be accurate wherever 
they were verified, but I was astonished to find in 
two instances that they were not complete. I think 
that in both cases it was owing to the ruinous 
condition of the chambers that he did not attempt 
to plan them, in fact, he says as much in his account 
of the tomb of User-neter. Not having any know- 
ledge whatsoever of engineering, I was not troubled 
with the same qualms ; and with the courage born 
of ignorance I ventured under bulging walls and 
slanting roof-stones to obtain measurements. That 
the danger was more in appearance than in reality 
is shown by the fact that not one of those walls or 
roofs has collapsed yet. 



CHAPTER II. 

STELES OF SEKER-KHA-BAU AND 
HATHOR-NEFER-HETEP. 

3. The steles of Seker-kha-bau, called Hethes, 
and of his wife Hathor-nefer-hetep, called Tepes, are 
well-known and are now in the Cairo Museum. 
Mariette has published the former completely, and 
the two sides of the latter {Mast. A 2). The middle 
piece of Hathor-nefer-hetep is placed in the Museum 
in a different room from the rest of the stele ; Mr. 
Weigail called my attention to it, and M. Maspero 
informed me that in the old Bulak Museum he 
remembers the three pieces being together, but they 
appear to have been separated when the Museum 



SEKER-KHA-BAU. 



was removed to Gizeh. There is no record of the 
middle piece, Mariette neither publishes nor men- 
tions it ; and though he presumably found it, there 
is no certainty on this point. The size of the 
fragment and its complete similarity in style and 
workmanship to the stele of Seker-kha-bau make it 
absolutely certain that it is part of the stele of 
Hathor-nefer-hetep. The beauty of the sculpture 
on these two steles must be seen to be appreciated : 
in the outline drawings given here it is impossible 
to show the delicate modelling which is such a 
characteristic feature of this monument. 

Stele of Seker-kha-bau. In the middle portion, 
Seker-kha-bau is represented seated before a table 
of offerings. He wears a long robe down to the 
ankles, it is brought under the right arm and over 
the left shoulder, where it is fastened with a ribbon, 
the ends of which hang down on each side of the 
arm ; the right arm and shoulder are left bare. 
That it is a loose cloth is shown by the left arm 
being so swathed in it that the outline is lost. The 
garment is so like a woman's dress that had the 
head been lost it would have been impossible to say 
if it were a man or a woman. He wears a short 
wig elaborately curled, and he also has a slight 
moustache, like Rahotep, showing that the fashion 
of clean-shaving was of later date than the Hlrd 
Dynastj-. His chair is of the usual design with legs 
resembling those of a bull ; the framework of the 
seat shows the cross-lashing by which the seat itself 
was fastened to the woodwork. Above the cross- 
lashing there is just visible a little piece of the 
cushion on which he sits. The table of offerings 
consists of a stand with two spreading legs, over 
which fits the socket of a wide flat dish, probably 
of alabaster like those of the same period which 
Mr. Garstang found at Bet Khallaf (Garstang, 
Mahasna, pi. \.\i.\). On the dish are laid the leaf- 
like objects which Mr. Griffith (Petkie, Dendcreh, 
p. 42) supposes to be slices of bread. Above the 
head of Seker-kha-bau are his names and titles, and 
divided from the titles by a horizontal line is a short 
list of offerings. The lower part of this portion of 
the stele is filled by a long list of offerings. 

The two sides are precisely similar in arrangement 
though differing in some of the detail. Seker-kha- 
bau is represented standing upright, holding in one 
hand a long staff, in the other the papyrus sceptre. 
Above him are his titles, which vary on the two 
sides, and also his names, Seker-kha-bau and 
Hethes ; while below is a list of tweh'c offerings. 



His dress consists of a short kilt, of which the upper 
fold is "wave-pleated''; one end is fastened under 
a belt by a buckle, while two small ends fall from 
below the kilt at the knee. He wears a short, 
elaborately-curled wig, beneath which the lobe of the 
ear is just visible. The most remarkable part of his 
costume, however, is his necklace. This consists of 
two parts, probably separate from each other. The 
under part fastens round the throat with a flat piece 
of metal ; to this are attached three flat zigzag 
strips, which reach from the throat to the chest ; 
the middle strip is finished by a wide loop, the two 
side-pieces by small knobs. Attached to these strips 
and reaching from shoulder to shoulder is another 
long piece of metal intended to represent a jackal. 
The animal has two arms raised in the attitude of 
worship, and it also has six legs placed at intervals 
along the body. The whole ornament must have 
been absolutely rigid, judging by the width of the 
metal strips. Over it comes a necklace of interlaced 
chains which are threaded through small circular 
disks and ankli-sxgxvs. The chains are so arranged 
as to show the zig-zag strips of metal below them at 
the neck and again on the chest. 

On Pl. XXXVI is a similar necklace, but of much 
later date. It is on a broken granite statue now 
being used as a door-stop in the yard of Mariette's 
house at Saqqara. Mr. 'Weigall suggested to me 
that it would be as well to copy it for the sake of 
comparison. In this late example the rigid part of 
the ornament is worn above the chains ; the zigzag 
pieces are very prominent, but the jackal has 
degenerated into a perfectly plain strip of metal 
which turns at an angle to the shoulders and 
disappears beneath the wig. The chains are inter- 
laced through circular disks and (Z«M-signs, and a 
single chain which starts from under the wig and 
ends nowhere passes through a small cylinder. The 
back of the statue was kindly copied for me by Mrs. 
Petrie, and shows a number of curious raised circles 
which I take to be the spots on his panther 
skin. 

As the necklace appears in two instances separated 
from each other by so great a space of time, it is 
probable that it was the badge of some office held 
by Seker-kha-bau and, centuries afterwards, by the 
original of the granite statue. In the Museum at 
Florence (Schiaparelli, Miiseo Egizia di Fi reuse, 
p. 197) there is a statue of Ptahmes, high priest of 
Ptah, who wears a similar collar. The statue is of 
the XVIIIth Dynasty (cf. Erman, A.Z., 1895, p. 22). 



TOMB OF THE SHEIKH-EL-BELED. 



4. The stele of Hathor-nefer-hetep is arranged 
precisely like that of Seker-kha-bau, with a back and 
two side-pieces. The upper part of the back is 
broken away, the head, the names and titles, and 
part of the list of offerings having completely dis- 
appeared, but enough remains to show the seated 
figure of Hathor-nefer-hetep, wearing a long and very 
elaborately-curled wig. Her robe, which reaches 
to the ankles, is shaped like her husband's, passing 
under the right arm and fastened on the left shoulder, 
so that the right shoulder and arm are bare. It is 
thickly spotted with black, the only instance of a 
spotted dress in this age, beside Median xviii. The 
chair and the table of offerings are the same as in 
the stele of Seker-kha-bau. The main list of offerings, 
though arranged like that of Seker-kha-bau, differs 
as to the objects named. 

The side-pieces, which are precisely alike, show 
Hathor-nefer-hetep standing, clothed in a long dark- 
green robe down to the ankles and fastened over the 
shoulders by wide straps. She wears no ornaments, 
and her wig is the same elaborate construction as 
that of the seated figure. Across the forehead under 
the wig is seen her own hair brushed smoothly 
down. The statue of Nefert, which is of this period, 
shows the hair worn in the same manner. There is 
one very remarkable point about the personal orna- 
mentation in vogue at the time ; the face, from the 
eye-brow to the base of the nose, is painted with a 
wide band of green, the rest of the flesh being 
painted the usual yellow. The mummy of Rahotep 
(Petrie, Mednm, p. i8) had green paint, a quarter 
of an inch wide, round the eyes ; and green eye-paint 
was commonly used in prehistoric times. Above 
the head of Hathor-nefer-hetep are her two names 
and her only title, while below is a list of six 
offerings. 



CHAPTER HI. 

TOMB OF THE SHEIKH-EL-BELED. 

5. The tomb of the " Sheikh-el-Beled " (Mar., 
Mast. C 8) is a huge mud-brick mastaba to which 
is added a small outer chamber, also in brick. The 
walls of the chamber on the east and south are 
greatly ruined, but the west wall is in good condition, 
and against it stands a magnificent red granite stele 



formed of a single block. The grand proportions, 
the fine workmanship, and the simplicity of style, all 
point to its being of the great period of art at the 
beginning of the IVth Dynasty. The only inscrip- 
tion is a single band of incised hieroglyphs, large and 
boldly cut, which go across the band of the stele 
(PL. HI, 5). 

6. The statue of the Sheikh-el-Beled was found 
in the recess to the south, and about the centre 
of the chamber was found also a circular alabaster 
table of offerings with the name Akhet-hetep-her. 
Mariette figures a disk with the same inscription, 
but states it to be of limestone. The drawing of 
this table of offerings has been sorted into the 
dossier of the very interesting and elaborate tomb 
of Akhet-hetep-her (D 6o). The one which is 
in the Cairo Museum, and which I have copied 
(Pl. hi, 4), is of alabaster, and I conclude that 
it was really found with the wooden statue, and 
that the copy of it has been misplaced in the 
Mastabas. 

It is impossible to say whether the name of the 
Sheikh-el-Beled is to be found on the stele or on the 
table of offerings. The only piece of evidence is 
negative, and that is that the owner of the stele had 
only one title, " Chief Kheri-heb priest," and it is 
only natural to suppose that he would have been 
represented in the distinctive costume of his office, 
but the Sheikh-el-Beled is clothed in the ordinary 
dress of the time, holding a staff of office in his hand, 
which would well accord with his position as "Judge 
belonging to Nekheb." 

It is not generally known that the head of the 
statue was coloured when found, but it was sent to 
the Paris Exhibition in 1867, and there a mould was 
taken from it without either the permission or 
knowledge of the authorities. The wet material 
used for the mould removed all the colour, and 
dimmed the brilliancy of the eyes, apparently by 
" oxydizing the bronze rims." There is a letter extant 
from Mariette deploring and lamenting the amount 
of damage inflicted on this unique work of art. 
(Wallon, Vic de Mariette, Appendix xiii, Institut 
de France.) 

The beautiful wooden statue of the so-called wife 
of the Sheikh-el-Beled was found, Reis Rubi told 
me, in the doorway leading northward out of the 
tomb. Unfortunately nothing more was dis- 
covered, for the tomb must have been plundered 
anciently. 



CONSTRUCTION OF TOMB. 



5 



7. Walls. Black 
15 in. X 7 X 5. 
Roof. Destroyed. 
Floor. Not seen. 



mud-brick. Size of bricks, 



CHAPTER IV. 



TOMB OF KA-EM-HEST. 



8. The tomb of Ka-em-hest (Pls. Ill, XXXIII) 
was opened by Mariette, who has, however, left no' 
record of it. It lies a little north of west from the 
tomb of Ptahhetep I, and we cleared merely the one 
small sculptured chamber. There may be more 
chambers which we left untouched, but Reis Rubi, 
Reis Khalifa, and my own Reis, considered I 
was wasting my time if unsculptured chambers were 
excavated, and these were therefore left severely 
alone. 

The false doors have that beauty of proportion 
which is characteristic of the IVth Dynasty. They 
cover the whole of the west wall, and have a slight 
batter of if inches in 36. The design is simply an 
arrangement of straight lines, vertical and horizontal, 
with nine small panels at the top containing the two 
lotus-blossoms tied together (Pl. Ill, 2), a decoration 
commonly. used in the Ilird and IVth Dynasties. 
There is no inscription whatever in the inner 
chamber, but on the jamb south of the doorway are 
two vertical lines of exquisitely-worked hieroglyphs, 
giving the name and titles of Ka-em-hest. The 
hieroglyphs are remarkable for the accuracy and 
vigour of the drawing, and for the delicacy of work- 
manship, which far exceeds anything I saw at 
Saqqara, and is only equalled by the work on the 
stele of Seker-kha-bau. 

The tomb appears to be unfinished, for on the 
south wall (Pl. XXXIII elevation) is a long, narrow 
slit, evidently intended to be the opening to the 
serdab. This still has the original outline marked in 
red paint, and the slit itself has been only just begun, 
being cut out roughly to the depth of nearly five 
inches. The north and south walls are each made 
of a single block. The false doors and the inscription 
show traces of plaster, and the outer walls leading to 
the doorway were thickly covered with the character- 
istic pinkish plaster of the Saqqara tombs. Unfor- 
tunately I had not then realized that plaster might 
hide inscriptions, and though I scraped the walls 



here and there, I made no systematic investigation ; 
but as the plaster lay perfectly smooth without 
hollows or irregularities, I think there could have 
been nothing under it. 

The doorway has a round drum, not inscribed. 
In the roof of the doorway, cut through the lintel 
stone, are two rectangular holes, for which I can 
find no reason. They measure 15^ in. X 12, and 
i5i in. X 13, and are at almost equal distances 
from the ends of the stone and from each other. 

The stone of which the tomb is built is very fine 
white limestone. The masonry is not particularly 
good, as the joints do not fit accurately, and the 
spaces are filled with a pinkish cement. 



9. Walls. 



False door. 



West. Two blocks. 

Traces of plaster. 
South. Single block. Unfinished 
opening to serdab, iQf in. x if, 
depth, 4I. 
East. Two blocks on each side of 

doorway, smaller blocks above. 
North. Single block. 
Roof. Destroyed. 

Floor. Paved. The floor of doorway is 10 in. 
higher than the chamber. 

A small, roughly-cut libation tank of limestone was 
found in this tomb. Size 20 in. x 15 x 5J ; the 
inner measurements were 13-^ in. x 8f x 30-. 



CHAPTER V. 

DOUBLE TOMB OF PTAHHETEP I AND PTAHHETEP- 
DESHER. 

10. The double tomb-chapel of Ptahhetep and 
Ptahhetep-desher(MAR., J/rti-/'. 6 and 7) is in the North 
cemetery, and remains partially open. Mariette 
places it in the IVth Dynasty, but from the inscrip- 
tions Prof. Sethe dates it to the Vth Dynasty. The 
later dating agrees also with the style of the 
sculpture, which is more like that of the Vth 
Dynasty than of the IVth. It is built against the 
outer wall of a mastaba, which has a batter of i in 
7. Prof. Petrie, who saw it, thinks that the 
mastaba, and the false door which stands against it, 
belonged to the father, and the chapels opening 
north and south from the main entrance were built 
by the two sons. Mariette concludes that the 



6 



DOUBLE TOMB OF PTAHHETEP I AND PTAHHETEP-DESHER. 



southern tomb is the more ancient. As will be 
seen from the plan, the construction is peculiar. 
The main entrance which leads to the false door is 
open, and has never been roofed. It was here that 
Mariette found the stele (Pl. V) 13'ingon the ground. 
This stele is of limestone, so roughly worked as to 
justify Mariette's opinion that it is quite unfinished. 
The hieroglyphs are merelj' hacked in without 
sharpness or delicacy, and the workmanship of the 
flat surfaces of the stone shows the same want of 
care. This stele is now in the Cairo Museum. Its 
exact position in the tomb is unknown, possibly it 
belonged to the inner chamber A, or to one of the 
chambers, now almost level with the ground, which 
lead westward out of chamber A. 

U. The false door, which faces east, is roughl}' 
hewn in limestone. The tomb was partially un- 
covered when I tirst went to Saqqara, and I was 
therefore able to examine the false door carefull}- 
before the workmen entered the tomb. It appeared 
to be blank, being covered with a smooth coat of 
what I afterwards found to be coats of whitewash. 
In one place, however, I was able to trace the 
almost obliterated lines of a figure (Pl. I\", 2) and on 
the lower band (Pl. IV, i) there were a few hollows 
showing traces of a brilliant blue below. With a 
penknife I gentU' scraped away some of the plaster 
of whitewash, and found an inscription below, the 
hieroglyphs being incised and coloured blue. With 
Mr. Weigall's help I cleared the two inscriptions; it 
then became necessary to try the rest of the false 
door, but though Mr. \\'eigall and I spent some 
time over it, we found nothing more ; only rough 
uninscribed stone appearing when we had dug 
through the successive coats of whitewash. 

This system of obliterating inscriptions by white- 
wash appears to have been not unusual, though the 
reason for it does not appear. I found plastered-up 
inscriptions and traces of plastering in the tombs 
of Sekhemka, Ka-em-hest, User-neter, and Ptah- 
shepses I and II, as well as in this tomb ; that is to 
saj-, in six out of the nine tombs which I opened, 
whitewash had been used. The whitewash was 
laid on in successive coats until the hollows of the 
sculpture were almost filled, and the walls appeared 
blank. In colour it is slightly pinkish, and though it 
comes oft sometimes in large flat flakes which bear 
on the underside a cast of the sculpture which it has 
covered, \et, as a rule, it breaks off in small pieces, 
and the work of scraping an obliterated inscription 



is very tedious and laborious. It was probably put 
on coat by coat when clearing up the tomb every 
few years. 

On each side of the main entrance which leads 
to the false door are two pillars, forming the 
entrance to two other tombs. On the north side is 
the tomb of Ptahhetep, on the south that of Ptah- 
hetep-desher. The two sides of this entrance are 
therefore quite uns3'mmetrical, and must be con- 
sidered separately. 

Ptahhetep I. The two pillars on the north 
form the portico of the tomb of Ptahhetep I. This 
portico was roofed with slabs of stone which rested 
on the wall and on the stone architrave which was 
supported by the pillars, overhanging the latter by 
yh inches so as to form eaves ; one stone only is in 
position. The pillars are inscribed from top to 
bottom with the titles and name of Ptahhetep 
(Pl. l\'), the only inscription found in this part of 
the tomb. The large chamber A has been roofed 
in, and part of the roof still remains in a ruinous 
and dangerous condition ; the two pillars which 
support a massive stone beam also remain. To the 
west a narrow doorway leads to two other chambers 
according to Mariette's plan, but the walls are so 
greatly destro3'ed that we did not excavate further, 
as there was no likelihood of finding inscriptions. 

12. Ptahhetep-desher. To the south is the 
portico leading to the tomb of Ptahhetep-desher ; 
this, like the portico opposite, is roofed with slabs of 
stone resting on the wall and on the stone archi- 
trave, which is supported by the pillars ; three out 
of the four roofing-stones remain in position, the 
fourth has entirely disappeared. Along the whole 
length of the wall above the doorway is an inscrip- 
tion carved on a band of stone which projects 
il inches from the wall (Pl. VI, i). The hiero- 
glyphs, which are incised, are boldly and deeply cut, 
and are coloured blue. Where the roof remains, the 
inscription is in good condition, but to the east side 
where the roofing stone has been removed the 
hieroglyphs are much worn ; so much so that it is 
only in certain lights that the dcsher bird can be 
recognized. 

The doorway to this tomb is more elaborate than 
the opposite one; the drum (Pl. VI, 3) is inscribed 
with the name and titles, and the roof of the door- 
way is painted red to imitate granite. Though I 
did not clear this tomb completely, I found another 
chamber besides that on Mariette's plan. In 



CONSTRUCTION OF TOMB. 



chamber C the west wall was simply the face of the 
original mastaba. The north wall was greatly 
destroyed, the best part being to the west, where 
the rough stones still retain their coat of mud- 
plaster on which had been a painting of the de- 
ceased seated ; very little of this remains now 
(Pl. VI, 2). 

The south wall has also been covered with mud- 
plaster and painted. Very indistinct traces re- 
mained of a scene of donkeys and men, too in- 
distinct and faint to copy ; and a heavy rainstorm 
swept away even those few traces. 

At the west end of both north and south walls is 
a low mud-brick wall, about j ft. high and 2 ft. 
3 in. long. Against the north wall it lies imme- 
diately below the remains of the painted figure of 
Ptahhetep-desher. As to the reason of these mud- 
walls, I can give no explanation. Had there been 
a stele, they might be supposed to be the tables on 
which the offerings were piled preparatory to being 
presented ; but there is no stele, and I could see 
nothing to warrant the conclusion that there had 
been one. 

Chamber D and the doorway leading to it from C 
are not shown in Mariette's plan. The doorway has 
remains of a coating of white stucco, but no traces 
of either painting or inscriptions. The chamber 
itself is built of rough-hewn blocks and is quite 
undecorated. Of the roof, four out of the five stones 
are in position, though at the east end the block is 
kept in position only by the sand underneath, and it 
lay at an angle uncomfortably suggestive of a sudden 
fall. As I was digging only for inscriptions and not 
for plans, I did not follow up the doorway which 
leads southward out of this room. 

13. Ptahhetepl. Portico. Walls. Limestone, unin- 

scribed. 

Pillars. Limestone, rect- 
angular, inscribed on 
south face. 

Roof. One stone in posi- 
tion. 

Floor. Not seen. 
Chamber A. Walls. Limestone blocks, 
uninscribed. 

Pillars. Limestone, rect- 
angular, uninscribed. 

Roof. Two stones in 
position. 

Floor. Not^een. 



Ptahhetep-desher. Portico. S. Wall. Limestone. 

Architrave, inscribed. 

Pillars. Limestone, rect- 
angular, uninscribed. 

Roof. Three out of four 
stones still in position. 

Doorway. Drum, in- 
scribed ; roof painted 
to imitate granite. 
Chamber C. W. Wall. Face of a 
mastaba, built in hori- 
zontal courses, batter i 
in 7. 

S. Wall. Lower part, 
rough blocks covered 
with mud-plaster, on 
which are traces of 
painting ; upper part, 
mud-bricks. Size of 
bricks, loi x 4^ x 2j. 
At west end, a low 
mud-brick wall. 

E. Wall. Horizontal 
rough blocks. 

N. Wall. Limestone 
blocks, originally 
covered with mud- 
plaster, on which are 
traces of painting. 
Low mud-brick wall at 
west end. 

Roof. Destroyed. 

Floor. Not seen. 

Doorway to D. Covered 
originally with white 
stucco. 
Chamber D. Walls. Rough limestone 
blocks, laid horizon- 
tally. 

Roof. Four stones out 
of five still in position. 
Floor. Not seen. 



CHAPTER VI. 

TOMB OF SEKHEMKA. 

14. The tomb of Sekhemka is the most important 
of the three which we copied and which Mariette left 
unrecorded. 



TOMD OF SEKHEMKA. 



It lies north-west from the tomb of Ptahhetep II 
at the foot of the slope on which Mariette's House 
stands. It is on the flat ground in a part of the 
cemetery where there appear to be few tombs. It 
was impossible to estimate the size of the tomb from 
the small part of it that we excavated. It may be 
like that of Ateta with a small sculptured chapel and 
a large pillared hall ; or like that of Ptahshepses II, 
merely a chapel built at the side of the mastaba; 
in'in aref? As I have observed elsewhere, vay busi- 
ness being inscriptions and not plans, I did not 
pursue my investigations be3-ond the sculptured 
part. 

The workmanship is thoroughly good, not up to 
the standard of Ptahhetep II or Ka-em-hest, but 
better than any of the others ; and the inscriptions 
are interesting. Some colour still remains on the 
hieroglyphs, chiefly red and black with a little 
}-elIow ; the blues and greens have disappeared. 
The figures and inscriptions are in relief with the 
exception of the list of the offerings, which is incised, 
and the two lowest registers of the outer columns, 
which are painted. 

The tomb, at least as much as I cleared of it, 
consists of a sculptured chamber, a doorway, and an 
outer wall along which was the sculptured architrave 
(Pl. VII). The stone of the west wall is a nummu- 
litic limestone, full of little fossils which fall out 
where the stone is worn, leaving a hollow, some of 
the edges of which are so sharp as to make it difficult 
to determine whether it is a natural hollow or part 
of an incised hieroglyph. When two or three little 
fossils, which are close together, happen to fall out, a 
ridge is left which is soon worn away by the action 
of the sand, and thus the surface is defaced more 
quickly than is the case with ordinary limestone. 

15. The West Wall (Pl. \TI) is entirely covered 
with sculpture. The upper part is greatly weather- 
worn, the list of festivals having almost disappeared. 
The panel is also greatly damaged, but the list of 
offerings is fairly complete. The rest of the wall 
has suffered very little, and though worn in places, 
there is very little which cannot be deciphered. 

When the tomb was first cleared, the decoration 
of the wall appeared to end at the feet of the large 
figures in the central panels ; below was a blank 
space the whole length of the wall broken at the 
south end by a low stone seat. It was not until I 
examined the stele ver)- carefull}^ that I discovered 
traces of what appeared to be a line of inscription 



belo\\- the feet of the large figures. A little scraping 
with a penknife showed that here was another in- 
stance of the obliteration of scenes and inscriptions 
by whitewash. The registers in the central panels 
were sculptured, those at the side were painted. It 
is a tedious and delicate business to clear the plaster 
off sculpture, but it is far more difficult to scrape a 
painting. If the scraping is too hard, the paint 
comes off; if not hard enough, the plaster remains 
and obscures the outlines. 

The little stone seat was also covered thickly with 
plaster ; I scraped down to the stone in several 
places, but could find no inscription on it. It 
must have been placed in position after the wall was 
finished, as the painting appears to be complete 
behind it. 

An architrave extends right across the wall ; it is 
quite illegible in the middle with the exception of a 
few signs ; but at the beginning a good deal of the 
inscription can be deciphered. It ends with a seated 
figure of Sekhemka holding a long staff. This is 
greatl}' damaged, the upper part of the figure being 
completely destroyed, but enough remains to show 
what was there originalh-. The middle part is the 
stele proper, though the whole of the west wall is 
sculptured. Below the architrave is a list of offer- 
ings in incised hieroglyphs, in very good condition 
except at the top. Then comes a figure of Sekhemka 
seated before a table of offerings towards which he is 
stretching out his hand. Behind this is another 
figure, barely discernible, of Sekhemka seated in his 
lion-footed chair ; in front of him is his little son 
Kaa, who with outstretched arm is touching his 
father in order to call his attention. Below are two 
lines of hieroglyphs ending in the name of Sekhemka. 

16. The stele now divides into two panels, one on 
each side of the false door. The false door has a 
long stripe of red on each side as a border, and the 
drum has a stripe of red at the top. The panels on 
each side are occupied by figures of Sekhemka which, 
though not life-size, appear gigantic when compared 
with the other figures near them. On the right-hand 
side, Sekhemka is represented standing, he has a 
short beard and wears a skull cap and a starched 
kilt, and holds a long staff and a rope (?) in his 
hands. Before him is a diminutive figure of his wife ; 
she is dressed in a robe with two shoulder-straps 
and wears a long wig. Before her is a still more 
diminutive figure of the little son Kaa, who wears 
the lock of youth and holds his father's staff. 



THE WEST WALL, SOUTH SIDE OF STELE. 



A register of five bearers of offerings finishes this 
panel; each man having his name above him, and 
in front of him the name of the object he is carrying. 
The first man carries a bird and a spouted vessel ; 
the second is uncovering the burning incense ; the 
third has two pieces of cloth ; the fourth holds a 
goose in his arms ; and the fifth, who from exigencies 
of space is much smaller than the others, has a stick 
in his hand and a jar of .water on his head. 

17. The left panel shows a standing figure of 
Sekhemka holding a long staff in his left hand and a 
cloth (?) in his right. His wig is of horizontal rows 
of short curls, and his necklace is most elaborate. 
He wears a starched kilt, and has a leopard skin 
over his shoulders. The head of the leopard, as in 
the case of User-neter, is placed about half-wa\' down 
the back of the animal, and comes a little below the 
waist of the wearer. The skin is tied on the left 
shoulder, though the method of fastening is not 
shown, and the ends of the tie fall on each side of 
the shoulder. In front of Sekhemka is a small figure 
of his eldest son, Sekhemka the Little. This figure 
is rather smaller than that of the mother in the 
opposite panel, though not so tiny as that of the 
young brother. Sekhemka the Little is dressed like 
his father except for the leopard skin, and he, like 
his little brother, holds his father's staff. 

In the register below there are five bearers of 
offerings, their names above them, and in front of 
each one the name of the object he is carrying. The 
first brings a jar of water ; the second a bird whose 
beak and legs he holds firmly ; the third has a deer 
across his shoulders ; the fourth carries in his arms 
a young hyaena with its hind legs securely tied ; and 
the fifth brings a goose in his arms. 

18. The rest of the wall on each side of the stele 
is sculptured also, beginning immediately below the 
architrave. On the left, or south, side is a figure of 
Sekhemka seated on a high-backed chair with a 
high square arm, over which he leans his right arm. 
In his right hand he holds a fly flap with three tails ; 
in his left hand is a short stick which he twirls in his 
fingers. He wears a wig with long straight curls, a 
starched kilt, and a wide collar. At his feet, with 
her right arm round his knees, is his wife Khent- 
kaues. I think that this is a portrait from life, the 
face being different from the ordinary type. She 
wears a wig with long straight curls hanging over 
the shoulders, and her dress has two shoulder-straps ; 



her ornaments are a necklace and bracelets. Under 
Sekhemka's chair lies his dog asleep with its head 
on its paws. It is one of the hunting dogs like 
that in Ptahhetep (Quibell, Raincsseiim, pi. xxxiii), 
rather like a greyhound with prick ears and a long 
pointed nose, but with a tightly curled tail like a 
pug's. He has a ribbon round his neck, the two 
ends lying flat on his back, and his name is Pesesh- 
Below this scene are five registers ; four sculptured, 
the lowest painted. 

The first register contains the family of Sekhemka ; 
two sons and two daughters. First comes the 
eldest son, Sekhemka the Little, or, as we should 
say, Sekhemka Junior; he is a grown man wearing a 
short curled wig and a starched kilt like his father. 
He is followed by his 3-ounger brother Kaa, 
represented as quite a child, with the lock of hair 
and the amulet of childhood, he carries a bird in his 
hand. Then come the two daughters, Khenut and 
Antha ; and behind them are three more children, 
the first of the three being " His son's son, 
Sekhemka." The other two are probably also 
grandchildren, but are unnamed. It is very rare to 
find grandchildren commemorated in a tomb ; as a 
general rule, only a man's own generation and the 
generations immediately preceding and succeeding 
him are noted. 

The second register contains five servants or 
priests bringing birds. The first two are in the act 
of killing the birds which they carry ; the third 
brings a goose in his arms ; the fourth carries a 
crane, whose long beak he holds firmly to prevent 
its struggling ; the fifth has three live birds in his' 
left hand, and three dead ones in his right arm. 
The first two have their names, Uashka and Uay, 
inscribed before them. The hieroglyphs are roughly 
incised as though by an unskilled hand. In many of 
the tombs at Saqqara one sees these roughly incised 
or scratched hieroglyphs, giving the name of a 
servant, side by side with finely sculptured inscrip- 
tions. It is evident that the servants wished to have 
their names perpetuated also, and inserted the names 
themselves when the artist had omitted them. 

The third register has unnamed bearers of offerings. 
The first carries two vases ; the second has a vase 
and a tray of fruits and vegetables ; the third brings 
two joints of meat, and a tray of figs and loaves ; 
the fourth holds a bird in one hand and a vase in 
the other; the fifth carries a tray of loaves and 
vegetables on his right shoulder, lotuses over his arm, 
and the ribs of the sacrificed ox in his left hand. 

c 



10 



TOMB OF SEKHEMKA. 



The fourth register contains a scene of sacrifice. 
One butcher, whose name Kednes has been roughly 
incised, is fla3'ing the hind leg of the ox which 
his assistant holds steady. The other butcher is 
engaged in removing the ribs of the partially dis- 
membered victim, while the assistant is sharpening 
the knife. 

The lowest register is one of those that was 
plastered up ; the lower part is hidden by the little 
seat described above. It is a scene of sacrifice ; the 
first figure carries the leg of the victim ; the second 
has the heart and some indeterminate object. The 
third figure is a butcher who is cutting up the 
animal, and turning round makes some remark to 
his fellows ; the fourth sharpens the knife. The 
hieroglyphs above their heads are in outline, those 
at the side in solid colour. 

19. On the right, or north, side the scene at the 
top shows Sekhemka seated in his straight-backed 
chair, over the high arm of which he leans his left 
arm. He wears a wig of short curls, a starched 
kilt, and a necklace of which some detail is shown. 
He holds a fly-flap of three tails in his left hand, 
while his right is stretched out towards the piles 
of offerings lying in front of him. He is accom- 
panied by his dog Pesesh, who in this scene is wide 
awake, with his head up and the ends of his neck- 
ribbon sticking out. 

Below this scene there are five registers as on the 
opposite side. The first register gives seven priests, 
all dressed alike in short-curled wigs and starched 
kilts, all in the same attitude with the right hand 
hanging down, and the left hand clutching the right 
shoulder. The name and titles of each one are given. 

The second register shows five bearers of offerings, 
of whom the first one only, Nesua, is named. He 
carries two vases balanced on his hands. The 
second has a bird and a fiat basket of large figs. The 
third brings meat and a tray of vegetables. The 
fourth is heavily laden with a vase, lotuses, and a tray 
containing a trussed goose lying on two large loaves. 
The fifth carries a haunch in his hand, and a loaf (?) 
on his shoulder. 

In the third register none of the bearers of offer- 
ings are named. The first bears a vase and a tray of 
loaves and vegetables ; the second, a haunch, and a 
tray of loaves and vegetables ; the third has a bird 
and a tray piled with various objects ; the fourth 
has a fish and a tray on which the most conspicuous 
object is a calf's head ; the fifth carries joints of 



meat in one hand, and the ribs of the sacrificed o.\ in 
the other. 

The fourth register, like the one seen opposite, 
shows the dismembering of the sacrificial victim. An 
official named Nefer superintends the butchers, one 
of whom holds the front leg of the ox while the 
other cuts it off. Behind is the assistant sharpening 
his knife. 

The fifth register is one of those which was 
covered with plaster. It is painted with a scene of 
sacrifice, and shows one butcher cutting off the leg of 
the animal while another holds it firm ; a third has 
a large bowl containing the blood of the victim ; 
and the fourth carries a leg which has already been 
removed. 

20. S. Wall. This is the only wall that has 
suffered any great amount of damage. The mud- 
plaster has gone, leaving the blocks of stone exposed, 
and a large hole has been made evidently in search 
for the serdiib. 

E. Wall. This wall is also built of blocks of 
rough stone plastered with mud-plaster. The 
traces of paint were more connected, and I fancied I 
could make out a scene of sacrifice, but the traces 
were too faint to copy. The door is at the south end 
of this wall ; its roof is painted to imitate granite. 

X. Wall. This is built of rough blocks covered 
with mud-plaster which shows traces of paint here 
and there. 

21. Outer Wall. Right across the wall above 
the door which leads into the sculptured chamber is 
the architrave (Pl. VII). It consisted originally of 
three lines, of which the top line has disappeared 
entirely; the middle line is not much better ; but the 
lowest line with its list of festivals is practically 
complete. It ends, like the architrave above the 
stele, with a seated figure of the deceased holding a 
long staff. 

22. W. Wall. Limestone, sculptured. Height 

10 ft. 5 in. 

Measurements of seat, 2 ft. 5 in. x i ft. x 6J in. 

S. Wall. Rough blocks. 

E. Wall. Rough blocks covered with mud- 
plaster, traces of painted scene. 
Doorway. 

N. Wall. Rough blocks covered with mud- 
plaster, traces of paint. 

Roof. Destroyed. 

Floor. Paved. 



DESCRIPTION OF TOMB. 



II 



CHAPTER VII. 



TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II. 



23. The tomb of Ptahhetep II. (D 62) lies to the 
north of the great Ptahhetep (D 64) mastaba pub- 
lished by the Egyptian Research Account and the 
Archjeological Survey. The two almost touch, being 
only separated by a very narrow passage. It is quite 
possible, judging by the plan (Pl. XXXIV) that there 
is even some communication betvveen the two mas- 
tabas ; the unexplained doorway at the east end of 
the southern strdab may perhaps be connected with 
the chapel of Akhethetep or with the pillared hall of 
Ptahhetep. 

Mariette writes with enthusiasm of the sculpture 
in this tomb. " Ce tombeau se recommande a 
I'attention par la disposition exceptionnelle de son 
plan, et surtout par la perfection des sculptures qui 
decorent la chambre principale." And a little 
further on he says: — " L'empleur et I'elegance du 
style sont d'ailleurs frappantes. Si une moitie de la 
partie superieure des bas-reliefs n'avait disparu, cette 
chambre serait I'une des plus remarquables qu'on 
puisse montrer comme echantillon de I'art sous les 
anciennes dynasties." Mariette is not guilty of ex- 
aggeration when he speaks in these terms, for the 
tomb of this Ptahhetep is, without exception, the 
most beautiful in Saqqara. Though the scenes are 
not so interesting as in the mastabas of Thy and 
Ptahhetep (D 64), yet in the workmanship and the 
drawing it surpasses them. For beauty of line, 
design, and decorative effect there is nothing finer in 

ligypt- 

On the north and south walls the figures are on an 
unusually large scale, as will be seen by comparing 
them with the figures on the east wall (Pls. IX, X, 
XI, XII). 

This being a large tomb, I excavated only the deco- 
rated portions ; the pillared hall and other uninscribed 
chambers were left untouched. Mariette's plan shows 
a large pillared hall to the east of the sculptured 
chamber C, with an entrance from chamber B. The 
west wall of the hall must be the original height, for 
it was close to the surface ; it was therefore cleared 
to the depth of a few inches until the corners were 
reached, in order to verify Mariette's measurements. 
The main entrance to the mastaba from the outside 
is on the east side of the hall ; immediately opposite 
to it is the entrance to the chamber marked B in my 
plan. This room B is in reality a little ante-chamber 



leading to three other rooms. To the north is a 
chamber which I did not open, and the door to 
which has been walled up with mud-bricks in recent 
times. To the west is the small painted chamber A, 
and to the south is the sculptured chamber C. On 
the opposite, i.e. the south, side of C is another door- 
way leading to an undecorated room D, from the 
east end of which runs a skew passage leading to E, 
a curiously long, narrow passage-like room with a 
doorway at the east end. This doorway does not 
appear in Mariette's plan, and, as usual, I would not 
continue the excavation for the sake of the plan, but 
had to leave it unfinished. Mariette gives a similar 
chamber, probablj' a serdab, on the north side of the 
building; the proportions are the same as E, but 
apparently there is no entrance. There is, however, 
no explanation in his notes, and nothing to show 
whether anything had been found there. 

24. Chamber A. Mariette dismisses this chamber 
in a few words. " Ouelques traces de peinture se 
font remarquer dans le chambre B et dans le cor- 
ridor " (meaning the doorway) " qui le precede." All 
the walls have been covered with brilliantl3'-coloured 
paintings representing offerings and the bearers of 
offerings, of which a certain amount remains. One 
roofing stone is still in place, and under this the 
colours are better preserved than at the unprotected 
end. 

West Wall (Pl. XV i). This wall, being the 
most exposed since the partial destruction of the 
roof, has also suffered the most, and the paintings 
are very indistinct and difficult to follow. Traces of 
colour remain very often, but where the outline is 
destroyed it is impossible to be certain what object 
was intended to be represented. I have copied only 
where the outlines were certain ; patches of colour, 
without outline, are not shown. 

South Wall (Pl. XV 2). Here again under the 
protection of the roof the colours remain to a great 
extent. The blue lotuses, the yellow figs, the red 
vases with black tops, and even the bearers of offer- 
ings, carr3'ing birds, vases, and lotuses are fairly 
distinct at the eastern end ; but where the roof is 
destroyed either the stucco is broken away or the 
paintings have disappeared. 

East Wall (Pl. XIII). Over the doorway the 
paintings are in very fair condition, being covered by 
the uninjured portion of the roof, and the objects 
can be distinguished with very little difficulty. The 
colours, in which pale yellow and blue predominate, 



12 



TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II. 



are very harmonious, and contrast well with the dark 
red of the figures on each side of the doorway 
below. 

North Wall (Pl. XV 3). Like the south and 
east walls the upper registers are filled with pictures 
of offerings. From the patches of red, which still 
remain, it is evident that the lowest register repre- 
sented bearers of offerings ; the scheme of decoration 
being the same as on the south wall. The cross- 
lashing of black appears to have formed a frieze all 
round the chamber, as it appears on all the walls 
except the west, on which the painted stucco is 
entirely destroyed at the top. 

In the centre of the west wall is a rectangular 
stone block running out into the middle of the room. 
It lies a little skew to the walls of the chamber, its 
a.xis being slightly N.W. and S.E. As this chamber, 
judging by the paintings, was the place where the 
offerings were made ready before being presented in 
front of the stele or the y^a-statue, it is probable that 
this stone block was the table on which the vessels 
containing the offerings were arranged. 

25. Chamber B. The reveals of the doorway 
between A and B (Pl. XVII 2, 3) have been painted 
with a figure of the deceased on each side. He is 
represented standing with a long staff of office in his 
hand, and his titles and name above and in front of 
him. The stucco and paint have scaled off to such 
an extent that it was difficult to decipher very much. 
About the middle of the figure the stucco has been 
completely broken away, leaving the rough stone 
visible. This was probably caused by the passage of 
bearers of offerings, carrying cumbrous loads through 
the door. The damage is greatest just at the height 
at which a load would be if carried by two men with 
their arms down, in the attitude of the two men in 
the tomb of Ptahhetep (Ouibell, Rainesseum, pl. 
xxxviii, 2nd register from the top). The slightest 
swerve would cause the load to strike the side of the 
narrow doorway, to the detriment of the painting 
and the stucco. 

This room is remarkable as having a door on every 
wall ; and though the north-east corner of the wall is 
greatly ruined every doorway is intact. The door- 
ways between A and B, and between B and C, are 
painted, the others are undecorated. 

Two out of three roofing stones still remain in 
position. 

26, Chamber C. This is the most important 



chamber of the tomb as it is here that the sculptures 
are found. The roof has been entirely removed, and 
the upper part of all the walls greatl}' damaged as 
well. On the north and south walls there had 
originally been three registers of sculpture ; on the 
north wall, two registers remain and traces of a 
third ; but on the south side the upper register has 
been completeh^ removed, and of the middle register 
there are only fragmentary pieces. The north wall, 
too, has lost the westernmost block, thereby making 
the procession of women incomplete. 

The north, south, and east walls are all built in 
the same way (Pl. XXXIV): three courses of 
horizontal rough blocks painted red, above these 
are large upright blocks of fine white limestone 
sculptured and painted. And of these three walls 
it is not too much to say that they have the finest 
and most beautiful sculpture in Saqqara. 

27. West Wall. Acccording to the usual 
custom the stele (Pl. VIII) is placed at the west 
end of the chamber, facing east. It is formed of a 
single block of fine limestone, and stands on another 
massive block which is painted red. It is surrounded, 
as in the stele of User-neter, with an imitation of a 
framework lashed together, the cross-lashing being 
faintly visible here and there. On either side of the 
stele is a painted inscription now barely visible, 
probably a list of the sacred oils, but so little remains 
that it is impossible to saj- with certainty. 

A great deal of colour is still to be seen on the 
stele ; the figures of Ptahhetep are coloured red with 
black hair, and many of the hieroglyphs show patches 
of brilliant colouring. Beside the centre column of 
inscription is a sign in orange-red paint, apparently 
the papyrus-roll determinative ; the only explanation 
of it is that when (as appears from the east wall) the 
tomb was copied in later times, the master sketched 
the papyrus sign on the wall to illustrate the 
difference between the early and late forms of the 
hieroglyph. The red paint of this sign is, however, 
not the same colour as the squares on the east wall, 
which have a more pinkish hue. 

The hieroglyphs on this stele are very interesting, 
and one at least — the determinative of the saz- 
festival — is new to me (Pl. XXXIX). The Iier-s\%n 
is always carefully worked, though the ears are of 
the conventional size ; and the vulture and hawk 
are both rendered with spirit. 

The principal titles of Ptahhetep are given, with 
his name, on the drum of the false door, " Judge of 



CHAMBER C. SOUTH WALL. PTAHHETEP AND HIS SON. 



13 



the High-court, vizier, confidential friend, Ptah- 
hetep." But the costume of the figures at the base 
of the stele shows the scarf peculiar to the kheri-heb 
priest, Ptahhetep being " the chief k/icri-heb.'" The 
figures are precisely alike on both sides of the stele, 
the only difference being that those on the north 
side are not quite finished, and the middle figure on 
the north is empty handed, while the middle figure 
on the south has a roll of papyrus (?). All are dressed 
alike in starched kilt and scarf of office, with a short 
beard, long-curled wig and elaborately designed 
necklace. The first on each side carries a long staff 
and a papyrus sceptre ; the second has nothing in 
his hands on the north, and a roll of papyrus on the 
south, side ; the third has a long staff and a piece of 
cloth. 

The stele is surrounded by an imitation of a 
framework of reeds lashed together. This lashing 
has been represented in colour which now appears 
only as a dark shade, with here and there a tiny 
fleck of the original brilliant blue. 

28. South Wall. The lowest register of this 
wall is practically complete, being only a little 
damaged at the east end. The middle register is 
greatly mutilated, but enough remains to give the 
names of the priests and servants, and to indicate 
the position of a colossal seated figure of the 
deceased. Of the upper register, not a fragment 
remains. 

At the' west end of the wall is a standing figure 
of Ptahhetep, facing the procession that advances 
towards him, and considerably larger than the other 
figures. He wears a short starched kilt, a wide 
collar, and a chain from which hangs an amulet ; 
he has a short beard, and round his head he has a 
wide ribbon tied in a bow at the bach. In front of 
him are two rows of hieroglyphs giving his titles 
and name. Facing him is his eldest son, Akhet- 
hetep (Pl. IX). This is evidently a portrait, the 
features being carefully drawn ; unfortunately the 
paint has become so rough owing to the disintegra- 
tion of the stone, that neither photograph nor 
drawing gives a quite satisfactory idea of the original. 
Akhethetep, who holds the title of " First under the 
King," presents to his father the account of the 
offerings which the farm-women are bringing. He, 
also, wears the short starched kilt and the wide 
collar, and he carries the scribe's outfit : two pens, 
one behind each ear, a writing palette from which 
hangs a plummet under his right arm, and a scroll 



held open with both hands. Dividing him from 
the farm-women is a vertical line of hieroglyphs 
announcing the bringing of offerings. Then follows 
a procession of seventeen women from the farms 
belonging to Ptahhetep, bearing on their heads 
baskets of produce, and the greater number either 
lead or carry an animal or a bird. The name of the 
farm from which she comes is inscribed in front of 
each figure ; the first five names are compounded 
with names of kings, the others are preceded by 
Ptahhetep's own name. 

The women are dressed in red or dark green 
robes ; their necklaces, bracelets, and anklets are of 
blue and green beads, and their wigs are black ; the 
flesh-colour is a dark yellow. This scheme of 
colour, with the brown of the animals, the brilliant 
tints of the hieroglyphs, and the dark grey, almost 
black, background, must have had a rich and 
magnificent effect. 

29. The animals brought by the women (Pls. 
IX, X, XII) are worth studying. Their extra- 
ordinarily small size, which exceeds all artistic 
license, cannot have been from want of knowledge 
or exigencies of space. The birds, both geese and 
pigeons, are drawn in proportion to the figures ; it 
is impossible also to believe that a man, who was so 
great a master of decorative art as the artist of this 
tomb, could not have made an equally fine design in 
which animals and human figures were not so utterly 
disproportionate. It was one of the conventions of 
art at that period to make the animals slightly 
smaller in comparison with the human figures with 
which they are associated ; probably in order to 
make the human figures more important, just as the 
figure of the owner of the tomb is made larger than 
any other that it may be the most prominent and 
strike the eye at once. On the east wall (Pl. XI) 
is an example of how this particular artist treated a 
subject where the animals were of the ordinary size ; 
the donkeys, though slightly small in proportion, 
are not noticeably so. We are therefore forced to 
the conclusion that the animals in the procession of 
farm women were a special breed, whose beauty lay 
in their smallness. In our times, Shetland ponies, 
bantam fowls, and toy dogs, are bred simply for 
their smallness ; the more diminutive the animal the 
more it is admired ; and as these animals are of no 
use in themselves it is only people of a certain 
amount of wealth who can afford to have them. We 
know that the Egyptians devoted great attention 



14 



TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II. 



to the breeding of animals, and there is no reason 
to suppose that toy animals were unknown, and 
that then as now it was only the wealthier mem- 
bers of society who possessed them. Among the 
animals in the procession are some quite young 
calves (ist, 3rd, and nth women); these are easily 
distinguished from the full-grown oxen with and 
without horns (2nd, 5th, 7th, and 14th women), but 
the calves give the scale of size. Another point to be 
noticed is that the toy animals are usually led by a 
rope round the hind leg, the neck, or the horns, 
while full-sized animals have the rope fastened 
round the lower jaw. 

30. The first woman carries a very young calf in 
her arms, and on her head an usek/i-ha.sket full of 
offerings. The second leads a full-grown hornless 
bull, which has a rope twisted four times round its 
neck, and from the end of the rope hangs an object 
which may be a shell (Davies, Ptakhetep I, pi. xvi). 
She carries a crescent-shaped basket of offerings. The 
third leads a young calf by a rope tied to its leg ; she 
has an «j<?<^//-basket. The fourth leads a full-grown 
deer which has its mouth tied up, the leading rope 
is fastened to its leg ; in her right arm she carries a 
goose, and on her head is a «^^-basket. The patterns 
on this and the other baskets were in paint ; the 
striped pumpkins in the basket were also painted. 
The fifth leads, by a rope round the leg, a full-grown 
hornless bull ; the creature has a cloth across its 
back and a collar, possibly of rope-work, round its 
neck, and it is eating a piece of rope. She carries 
an usekh-\>z.^&i. The sixth woman has no animals, 
and has only one anklet and one bracelet. She car- 
ries a small jar by a loop in her left hand, and on 
her head is a crescent-shaped basket. The crescent- 
shaped and «^(^-baskets are carried on a ring of twisted 
cloth or rope which fits round the head and also fits 
the curved base of the basket, rendering it steady on 
the head. The seventh woman has a pigeon in her 
left hand, while looped over her left arm is a rope 
which is attached to the horns of a full-grown bull. 
The animal wears an ornamental collar, and holds in 
his mouth an object which may be a flower or possibly 
a shell amulet like that worn by the bull led by the 
second woman. The eighth woman is perhaps the 
most interesting in the procession on this wall, owing 
to the alteration that has been made in the animal 
she is leading. As it stands now, it is a calf with a 
rope tied to its hind leg, but across the woman's foot 
and between the feet of the calf and above its head 



are traces of the tail, feet, and ear of another animal. 
The rope, which she holds in her hand, has been 
fastened originally to the neck of the animal, but 
now it is partly chiselled away and its direction is 
changed in order that it may come to the hind leg 
of the calf. The calf has been merely sketched in 
red paint, preparatory to carving ; the artist evidently 
knowing that all remaining traces of the original 
animal would be completely hidden by the paint 
which would eventually cover it. Even now, when 
the surface of the stone is exposed, the traces are 
hardly noticeable. From the shape of the tail and 
the legs the animal was a hyaena ; and it is parti- 
cularly interesting, for it dates the period when the 
keeping of hyaenas for food began to go out of fashion. 
A «(?/^-basket full of offerings completes this woman's 
load. The ninth, like the sixth, has no living creature 
in her charge ; she carries a papj-rus stem in the left 
hand, and on her head an ?«f/'//-basket. The tenth 
has a pigeon in her left hand and an //i'^M-basket 
on her head. The eleventh leads a calf by a rope 
tied to its hind leg ; on her head, an 2/jeM-basket. 
The twelth carries a pintail-duck by the wings in her 
right hand ; an //jt'/^/j-basket on her head. The 
thirteenth carries a young calf on her arm and an 
«j^/t//-basket on her head. Here the artist has made 
another correction ; the legs being too thin, he has 
added a piece the entire length. This is noticeable 
as the addition is at a lower level to the rest of the 
figure, the ground being also slightly lowered to 
admit of it. The last four women are partially 
broken and the baskets are destroyed. Fortunately 
a fragment found lying loose in the sand completed 
the figures of Nos. 16 and 17, but no other fragments 
of this register could be found. The fourteenth 
woman holds a goose in her left arm, and leads a 
full-grown ox by a rope fastened to its horns, it wears 
a large ornamental collar. The fifteenth carries a 
young calf, and leads a full-grown deer with curving 
horns. The sixteenth holds a pigeon by the wings 
in her right hand. The seventeenth carries a goose 
on her right arm. 

31. Portions of the middle register still remain, 
showing (at the west end) the feet of a large seated 
figure of Ptahhetep. Before him is a table of offerings 
on which are upright leaves. Then comes a pile of 
offerings, birds and lotuses, baskets of figs, joints of 
meat, and loaves heaped up in confusion. Beyond 
this are figures ; most of them being broken away so 
that the legs only are left. The son Akhethetep 



CHAMBER C. EAST WALL. 



15 



leads the way, sacrificing a bird, the rest bring birds 
and lotuses as their offerings. 

The colours of the women's dresses are as follows, 
the numbers beginning at the west end of the wall : 
I green, 2 red, 3 green, 4-6 no colour, 7 green, 8 no 
colour, 9 green, 10 red, 11 green, 12 no colour, 13 
green, 14 no colour, 15 and 16 green. 

32. East Wall. On the southern half of this 
wall is a recess like a low doorway, but there 
appears to be nothing behind it only the limestone 
chips of the filling between this chamber and the 
pillared hall. The wall has originally had five 
registers, of which only the lowest is now complete. 
No colour remains, but the wall is covered with red 
lines in squares, probably for the purpose of copying. 
It is evident that the lines are not the original squar- 
ing when the drawing was first transferred to the 
wall, for they are on both sculpture and background. 
This shows that after the sculpture was completed 
it was copied carefully, though at what period there 
is nothing to show. We know that during the 
Renaissance of art in the XXVIth Dynasty the work 
of the early periods was largely copied, and it is quite 
possible that an artist might set his pupils to draw 
from good work, such as this, just as a modern art- 
student works from the Elgin Marbles. 

The highest register is very fragmentary, but 
contained apparently a procession of bearers of 
offerings. 

Below is a scene of donkeys. A man holds a 
donkey by the ears and the off fore leg, with the 
intention either of making it stand still or of throwing 
it. Then comes a row of laden donkeys, each driven 
by a man ; in front of the foremost donkey is a little 
foal, but here unfortunately the wall is very much 
damaged before breaking off completely, and the 
head of the foal is destroyed. 

The middle register is remarkable for the amount 
of action in all the figures. First, there are two men 
filling a granary by throwing the grain up so that it 
may fall in at the top ; a very decorative group. 
Then come donkeys on the threshing-floor, being kept 
in their place by a man at each end. The drawing is 
so spirited that one fails to see at the first glance the 
liberties which the artist has taken with the anatomy 
of the animals. Only the last donkey has hind legs ; 
and the foremost donkey with his head down, and 
the donkey which is turning back, have no legs at 
all, and consist only of a head and neck. It is 
noticeable that the man, who faces the donkeys, was 



intended to have an elaboratel)' curled wig like the 
butchers in the lowest register ; it was begun, but 
never finished. Beyond the donkeys are two stacks 
which are being erected by three men wielding three- 
pronged pitchforks. Lastly, there are two women 
with their hair in pigtails ; one is sweeping up the 
grain which the other is winnowing. 

The second register from the bottom shows fowlers 
at work. The papyrus swamp, in which the scene 
takes place, is shown first ; then comes the net, full 
of birds, among which the spoonbill and the crested 
heron are easily recognizable. The head fowler, 
hidden behind a thick screen or pillar, gives the 
signal to close the net ; and his assistants respond 
by pulling in the rope over-hand, the coil of the rope 
lying between the feet of the last man. Beyond 
these are five men, the last two being almost com- 
pletely destroyed ; they are fowlers, probably the 
same as those who managed the netting of the birds, 
carrying away their prey. 

The lowest register is given up, as is the general 
rule, to scenes of sacrifice. The ual>-pnest of Sekhet, 
Unnefer, presides over the ceremony, doing nothing, 
while the butchers and their assistants slaughter and 
dismember the animals. All the little details are 
most carefully worked ; even the little knots of the 
string which ties the knife-sharpener to the girdle 
are never slurred nor done in haste. The groups of 
men are varied, so that no two are alike ; even where 
two groups are doing exactly the same thing, the 
number of men is varied, and the positions of the 
principal operators are slightly different. In the first 
group, the animal has been skinned, the front legs 
removed, and the hind leg is about to be cut off. In 
the second group, the butcher is taking out the heart. 
In the three groups which follow, the front leg of the 
victim, the kliepesh, is being removed. And in the 
last group, the butchers are preparing to skin another 
animal. 

33. The North Wall. Two registers are nearlv 
complete ; though, owing to one great block being 
broken away at the west end, the figures of Ptahhetep 
and his son are missing. In the lowest register the 
procession of stately farm-women corresponds with 
those on the opposite wall. One of the prettiest 
offerings is the cage of birds, of which the design is 
charming. 

The beginning of the procession is on a fragment 
(Pl. XVII 7), only the animal, the woman's feet, and 
part of the inscription remain. The position of the 



i6 



TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II. 



^^■oman's feet shows that she is standing, whereas 
the corresponding woman on the south wall is walk- 
ing. This leads me to suppose that the two walls 
did not correspond exactly in design, but that there 
was some variation, which makes the loss of the 
block still more grievous. A little colour remained 
on this fragment, the animal being a pinkish brown, 
and the woman's dress had traces of green. 

Pl. XII. No. I carries a stem of papyrus, and an 
nsek/i-ha.sket of jars (?). It is remarkable that when 
the offering is small and poor the artist has taken 
less trouble over the figure, and in every instance of 
a small gift the wig of the bearer is left unfinished. 
2. An i/sekk-hcisket of cakes, and in the right hand a 
small jar carried by a loop. 3. A crescent-shaped 
basket of fruit and vegetables on the head, and a 
miniature deer is led with a rope tied to its hind leg. 
4. An !/se^/i-ha.sket of loaves, and a beautifully de- 
signed group of lotus and papyrus, the lotus twining 
round the stem of the papyrus. 5. An //Ji?-^/;-basket 
containing jars and loaves, on the arm a small deer, 
and a bunch of lotus hanging from the hand. 6. An 
usekk-hasket containing loaves, covered baskets, a 
jar and a vegetable ; in the left hand, a bottle-shaped 
basket carried by a loop, and a 3'oung calf is led by 
a rope round his hind leg. 7. A goat with large 
curved horns led by a rope fastened to its hind leg, 
on the woman's head is a box or cage of birds. 8. A 
calf, with a collar, led by a rope tied to the off fore 
leg, on the woman's head an 2/sek/i-h3.sket of cakes, 
over her arm a lotus and two buds. g. The animal 
has never been finished, but is merely sketched in 
red paint ; it is a full-grown bull, and the rope was 
intended to be attached to the hind leg. g. A cres- 
cent-shaped basket filled with a great variety of 
offerings : in the hand, two papyrus stems {?). The 
animal is a very young calf, the rope being tied to 
its fore leg. 10. An usel-// -ha.sket of vegetables and 
cakes on the head, on the arm a 3'Oung calf. The 
led animal is a goat with long curving horns, the 
rope fastened to the fore leg. 11. On the head a 
crescent-shaped basket containing loaves and papy- 
rus stems (?), on the arm a large goose ; the animal 
is a deer tied by the hind leg. This woman is shown 
on Pl. XIII. 12. An ?/Si'l'/i-ha.sket filled with jars(?) ; 
traces of the pattern of the basket still remain. In 
the hand is a papyrus stem, and the animal, a deer, 
is tied by the fore leg. 11. A crescent-shaped basket 
filled with loaves and vegetables, among others there 
are onions ; a jar, slung by a loop, is in the left hand, 
and the animal is a young calf. With the e.xception 



of the calf led by the 8th woman, all the animals 
have the leading rope fastened on the near side. 

34. The Upper Register. There are a few re- 
mains of the list and pile of offerings which originally 
filled part of this register. Of the pile of offerings 
there are only a bundle of papyrus stems (?), the ribs 
of an ox, part of a basket of figs, and some loaves (?). 
The rest of the register is occupied by a procession 
of men bringing offerings, led by two men who are 
sacrificing birds. The detail on the feet of the second 
bird is very fine and delicate. Both men grasp the 
heads of the birds with an action full of energy, and 
this. is one of the few instances in which an artist of 
the Old Kingdom has succeeded in showing the 
object grasped within the grasping hand. i. Akhet- 
hetep wears a plain skull-cap ; his necklace consists 
of several rows of beads, the outer row being of the 
characteristic pear-shaped pendant beads of the Old 
Kingdom ; his kilt is starched and comes to a point. 
2. Nu-hekau has an elaborate wig of short curls, and 
he also wears a starched kilt. 

3. This figure has been chiselled away almost com- 
pletely, but for what reason it is impossible to sa_v. 
It was evidently the artist's intention to put another 
in its place, for the dark red flesh colour of a figure, 
which had been painted in, was still visible. The 
name has been entirely obliterated, but the titles 
above the head are untouched. 

All the men who follow are dressed alike in short- 
curled wigs and short kilts, and carry various offerings. 

4. He has a goose and a bunch of pink lotuses, a 
bud of which he carries with the flexible stalk looped 
round his hand. 

5. This man carries the smallest offering, a bird 
and a bunch of papyrus stems and lotus buds. 

6. A second Akhethetep brings a tray of fruit and 
vegetables, and a bird, also a large pink lotus over 
his arm. 

7. This man is the most heavih' laden in the pro- 
cession. He has a large tray of fruit and vegetables, 
and a large pottery bowl full of small joints of meat. 

8. He carries a goose and a bunch of onions. 

g. This is the last man in the procession, and part 
of one of his offerings is broken away. It is a large 
pottery bowl which apparently had a cover tied on. 
These bowls are generally represented with blue 
lotuses put through the string which fastens the 
cover. In the other hand he carries a sealed vase 
on a stand, and over one arm is a bunch of blue 
lotus blossom and buds. 



CHAMBER C. DOORWAYS. 



i7 



Note. — In the inscription above the heads of the 

figures, a "^^ and ^^ are slightly distorted in the 

lithograph ; they should be like the other examples 
of the same signs in the tomb. 

Of the topmost register only the feet of some of 
the bearers of offerings remain, a fragment (Pl. 
XVII, 12), found in the sand just outside the wall 
of this chamber, evidently belongs to this register. 

35. The reveals of the doorways of the sculptured 
chamber (Pl. XIV) are painted with figures of 
bearers of offerings. The north doorway (Pl. XIV, 
I, z) leading from chamber B to chamber C is deco- 
rated with three registers of figures. It is in bad 
condition ; in many places the colours have dis- 
appeared entirely ; in others only a few patches of 
paint with definite outline are all that remain of the 
original design. Here and there a hieroglyph is 
\isible, showing that each servant was named. In 
the lowest register of the east side is the figure of a 
woman, carrying a box on her head and birds in her 
hand ; all the other figures are of men. In the lintel 
of the doorway is the pivot-hole for the wooden door 
by which the sculptured chamber could be secured, 
and the hole for the bolt is in the jamb. The roof 
of the doorway is painted to imitate granite. 

The south doorway (Pl. XIV, 3, 4) has only one 
register of figures on each side. It is in much better 
condition than the opposite doorway, owing probably 
to its being protected, by the roof of chamber D, from 
the prevailing southerly winds. There are three men 
on each side of the doorway, and they carry lotuses, 
papyrus, vases, covered baskets, and open trays filled 
with loaves. At the side furthest from chamber C is 
a pattern of rectangles of various colours, and under 
the figures is a broad black band. 

The roof of the doorway is painted red to imitate 
granite, and in the western jamb is the hole for the 
door-bolt. 

36. Chamber D is long and narrow, built of rough 
blocks and roofed, the roof being still intact. There 
were no inscriptions of any kind except illegible 
traces of a quarry mark in red paint on a block near 
the skew passage. 

The passage leads from chamber D to chamber E. 
The latter is probably a serdab communicating with 
the pillared hall through the pointed recesses on the 
north side. The roof is intact save for one stone, 
and the floor is paved. I greatly regretted that it 



was not possible to follow up the doorway which 
leads eastward out of this chamber, but under the 
circumstances it was not possible. 

The recesses are in shape like a pyramid laid on 
one side, sloping up to the apex on every side. I 
made careful measurements, but when I came to 
draw out the plan on paper the points of the recesses 
appear to open into the pillared hall, though I could 
see no openings from the side on which I stood. 
The apparent discrepancy may be accounted for by 
the fact that the floor of the recesses sloped upwards, 
which would bring the points to the face of the wall 
with a very small opening, which when blocked 
would not be visible from chamber E. 

37. Pl. XVII, 4-13. These fragments were found 
loose in the sand, and we collected and piled them 
together on a broken part of the wall near the door 
of the painted chamber. I am convinced that if a 
systematic search were made in the sand surrounding 
this tomb great numbers of fragments would be found. 
The blocks of stone were too large to be removed 
whole, and must have been broken up on the spot, 
and the sculptured chips are probabl}' still to be 
found. 

4 does not seem to belong to this tomb, the hiero- 
glyphs are incised, and the workmanship is rather 
poor. It was probably a fragment from a much 
later tomb thrown in with other stones among the 
sand filling. I do not understand the meaning of 
the hollowed spaces below the inscription. 

6 appears to be part of a figure of a bearer of 
offerings from one of the upper registers on the north 
wall. A basket of figs and a pink lotus are all that 
remain of his gifts. 

8-12 are all that remain, with the exception of the 
fragment on Pl. XII, of the list of offerings which 
generally forms so conspicuous a feature of the deco- 
ration of O.K. tombs. 

13 is a portion of a figure, probably one of the 
bearers of offerings from the upper registers of the 
south side. 

38. Chamber A. Walls. Rough limestone blocks, 

originally covered with 
white stucco and painted. 

Roof. One stone still in position, 
painted red to imitate 
granite. 

Floor. Paved. 

Height of chamber, 8 ft. iijin. 

D 



i8 



TOMB OF ATETA. 



Measurements of stone block. L. 

4 ft. gh in. x W. i ft. 

iii in. X H. I ft. 

lol in. 

Chamber B. West Wall. Rough blocks. Upper 

and lower lintel, block 
of a single span each. 
Roof of doorway 
painted red to imi- 
tate granite. Reveals 
of doorway painted. 
Height of door, 7 ft. 
i in. 

South Wall. Horizontal rough 
blocks. Upper part 
of doorway of fine 
white limestone 
painted to imitate 
granite. Reveals of 
doorway painted. 
Height of door, 
8 ft. 9 in. 

East Wall. Greatly destroyed, 
doorway only re- 
mains intact. Height 
of door, 8 ft. 9 in. 
North Wall. Horizontal rough 
blocks. Door blocked 
with mud-brick wall. 
Size of bricks, 12 x^j 
X 3 in. Height of 
door, 6 ft. 4 in. 

Roof. Two stones out of three still 
in position. 

Floor. Paved. 

Height of chamber, 10 ft. 
Chamber C. West Wall. Stele of a single block ; 

base of stele, single 
horizontal block 
painted red. 
Measurements of 
hetep-stone, 5 ft. 5 x 
2 ft. Ili X I ft. 2}.. 
Height of step, li^ in. 

South Wall. Three courses of hori- 
zontal rough blocks 
painted red ; above, 
are five fine limestone 
blocks sculptured. 
Height of doorway, 
6 ft. 3 in. 



East Wall. Three courses of hori- 
zontal rough blocks 
painted red ; above 
are four upright 
blocks of fine white 
limestone sculptured. 
Measurements of re- 
cess, 2 ft. 10 in. wide 
x 2 ft. 4I high. 
Measurements of lin- 
tel stone above recess, 
4 ft. 8^ X I ft. 3. 
North Wall. Three courses of hori- 
zontal rough blocks 
painted red ; above, 
blocks of fine white 
limestone, sculptured. 
Height of doorwaj-, 
7 ft. 9- 

Measurements of al- 
tar, 5 ft. gi X I ft. 9 
X I ft. 9I. 
Roof. Destroyed. 
Floor. Paved. 
Chamber D. Walls. Rough blocks. 
Roof. Intact. 
Floor. Paved. 
Chamber E. Walls. Rough blocks. 

Measurements of recesses, 
2 ft. 10 wide X 2 ft. 8J 
high X 4 ft. gh deep. 
Roof. Twelve out of thirteen blocks 

still in position. 
Floor. Paved. 
Height of room, 8 ft. 7. 



CHAPTER Vni. 

TOMB OF ATETA. 

39. The tomb of Ateta (Mariette, Mastabas, D 63) 
lies to the south of the tomb of Ptahhetep H (D 62) 
and to the west of that of Ptahhetep (D 64). We 
e.xcavated only the sculptured chamber, marked A 
in Mariette's plan, leaving the pillared hall uncleared. 
Mariette thinks that this tomb is later in date than 
that of Ptahhetep (D 62). I do not however under- 
stand his remarks concerning the stele ; " Le haut 
est tres-mutile. Le bas est rendu si meconnaissable 
par le sable mele de cailloux qui, aide par les eaux 
pluviales a fait une sorte de poudingue silicieux." 



CONSTRUCTION OF TOMB. 



19 



The only mutilation the stele has suffered is the loss 
of the architrave, which may or may not have been 
sculptured. The " poudingue " is certainly there, 
but the greater part is on the unsculptured portions 
of the stele, and affects the inscription very little. 

The most remarkable feature of the tomb is the 
figure of Ateta, sculptured in such high relief as to 
be almost in the round, standing in the false doorway 
(Pl. XIX). The height of the figure is 3 ft. 8i in. ; 
the height of the pedestal on which it stands is 
2 ft. i?7 in., the width i ft. 4 in., and the depth 7 in. 

The figure is painted red, the hair black, the gar- 
ment white. A great deal of colour remains on the 
hieroglyphs, especially on the " band.'" The lists of 
offerings are painted blue, and both in colour and 
cutting bear a strong resemblance to the hieroglyphs 
in the pyramid of Unas. This agrees very well with 
Mariette's dating of the tomb, enabling us to place 
it at the end of the Vth Dynasty, or beginning of 
the Vlth. 

In the side chamber, B in Mariette's plan, were 
found by Mariette a number of wooden models of 
boats, figures, and other objects, which he says were 
too decayed to be removed ; and as it was before the 
days of rapid photography, the record of them, ex- 
cept for this brief notice, is lost. Two statues, how- 
ever, and some models of offerings, all in limestone, 
were removed to the Museum. The loss of the boats, 
which were evidently the precursers of the boats 
found commonly in Middle Kingdom tombs, is 
irreparable. 

40. Walls. W. Stele with figure. N., S., E. 
Limestone, uninscribed. 
Roof. Destroyed. 
Floor. Paved. 



CHAPTER IX. 

TOMB OF USER-NETER. 

41. The tomb of User-neter (Mariette, Mastabas, 
D I) lies just outside the northern boundary of the 
step pyramid, not far from the stone pyramid. 
Mariette remarks on the badness of the building, 
and says that the mastaba appears to be collapsing. 
This was about fifty years ago, and the mastaba is 
still on the point of collapsing, but has not collapsed 
yet. Prof Petrie, on seeing it, warned us that the 



north wall of chamber A was in a dangerous con- 
dition as it was bulging inwards about the middle ; 
so we hastily finished drawing that wall and then 
banked it well up with sand till we had finished the 
remainder. It was probably in consequence of the 
ruinous condition of the tomb that Mariette planned 
only two chambers, A and B, and makes no mention 
of C and D. It is perhaps for the same reason that 
his copies of the inscriptions are careless and inaccu- 
rate in a way that is unusual with him. I managed 
to obtain complete measurements of C, and it was 
only because D was evidently unsculptured that I 
did not clear the north end. 

42. The main chamber A is built of blocks of 
limestone badly joined together, and with small 
pieces fitted in to the corners of the larger blocks 
(Pl. XXXII, elevation of S. wall). At the east end 
is the door (Pl. XXXII) and above it, within a few 
inches of the roof, is a narrow window. The block 
below the window has been removed, but the small 
portion that remains shows a chamfered edge. The 
chamfer runs also up the side of the window. As in 
the tomb of Ptahhetep II, the lowest courses of stone 
are left rough and are painted red, the upper courses 
being of dressed stone and sculptured. 

In consequence of the roof being still intact, the 
colours on the walls have been preserved to a very 
marked extent, and here, as in the other tombs, we 
came to the conclusion that the colours were all of 
the same tone, harmonized by the black background. 
All round the chamber is a frieze of the kheker 
ornament, painted in colours ; the outer part blue, 
the next line green, and the centre red ; this scheme 
of colour applies to all the parts of the ornament. 
Mariette says that this is the earliest example of the 
use of the kheker, and as far as I know this state- 
ment still holds good. The floor slopes slightly 
upwards from east to west (Pl. XXXII, elevation of 
S. wall), and at the ]ietcp-=Xox\^ there is a step of 
4 in. high. 

43, The West W.-^ll. — The west wall is occu- 
pied by the stele (Pes. XX, XXXII) built of several 
blocks, the joints of which, as in the other walls, do 
not fit with any accuracy. The stele is surrounded 
with the representation of a framework, held together 
by cross-lashings, which in this instance are sculp- 
tured and then painted blue. At the top is the usual 
cavetto moulding ; the ribbing or leaves, which form 
the ornament, are ij in. wide at the base, and are 



20 



TOMB OF USER-NETER. 



also blue. Above the cavetto are the tops of the 
kheker ornament, the lower parts being apparently 
hidden behind the stele. 

The hieroglyphs on the stele are of good work, 
better than those on the side walls. Some of the 
signs are very elaborate, and on many of them the 
colour remains very clearly. The stele is remark- 
able for the fact that it contains only hieroglyphs 
and no representations of the deceased. Even the 
rectangular space at the top, which Mariette calls 
the tableau, and which usually contains the figure of 
the deceased before a table of offerings, is here filled 
with hieroglyphs only. The vertical columns at the 
sides — the montants principaiix and petits montants of 
Mariette — usually terminate with standing figures of 
the deceased, but here the hieroglyphs are continued 
to the bottom of the line. At the base of the stele 
the hieroglyphs were covered with plaster, thickest 
at the lowest point. Mariette's reproduction of the 
stele has several mistakes and misplacements of the 
signs, an unusual occurrence in his copies, which are 
generally accurate. 

A hetep-stone stands at the foot of the stele ; it is 
plain and uninscribed. 

44. The north and south walls are remarkable as 
showing the complete rites for the dead ; the sacri- 
fices, the bearers of offerings, the lists of offerings, 
the offerings themselves, and the ceremony of purifi- 
cation by water and incense. The south wall is in 
very good condition, nothing of importance being 
lost, but in the north wall there are large spaces 
where the surface of the stone has flaked away, 
leaving gaps in the sculpture. The artistic merit 
and technique of the sculpture is on a level with that 
of the building itself. It is crowded with detail, 
which serves to hide the want of good drawing ; in 
short, this tomb appeals to the archaeologist and not 
to the artist. 

South Wall. — The principal figure is, as is cus- 
tomary, at the west end of the wall nearest the stele, 
and appears of colossal size as compared with the 
other figures on the same wall. Above his head are 
five vertical lines of large hieroglyphs giving his titles 
and name, beginning with the title " First under the 
King," and ending with his name, User-neter. He 
is seated in a chair with lion feet ; and he wears a 
short beard and a wig of long straight curls. His 
right hand is stretched towards the table of offerings, 
and in his left hand he clutches a piece of cloth (?). 
His dress consists of a short close-fitting kilt and a 



leopard-skin, the latter being fastened on the right 
shoulder by an elaborate tie with pendant ends. The 
leopard-skin passes under the left arm, leaving the 
shoulder bare, the claws fall over User-neter's right 
arm and left thigh, the tail is brought across both 
his thighs and hangs straight down ; the head of the 
animal is fastened in the middle of its back, and 
hangs a little below the waist of the wearer (see 
Sekhemka, Pl. VII, p. g). The wide collar con- 
sists of rows of beads, the outer row of pendants 
strung closel}' together. Pendant beads of this shape 
are not uncommon in the sculpture of the Old 
Kingdom, and Prof. Petrie found the actual beads of 
dark and light glaze at Deshasheh (Petrie, Desha- 
sheli, pl. xxvi, p. 21). In front of User-neter is 
the table of offerings with its tall leaves, and below 
it is a short list of offerings. These hieroglyphs are 
of exquisite workmanship, the little heads of the 
animals being modelled with great delicacy. Judging 
by the difference in style, I should say that these 
hieroglyphs, the large figure of User-neter, and the 
figures of his two sons, with the hieroglyphs that 
accompany them in the middle register, were sculp- 
tured by the master, and the rest of the tomb by his 
pupils ; and that in this little group of hieroglyphs 
the master surpassed himself. 

The wall is divided into six registers at the east 
end, in the middle there are four registers and a list 
of offerings ; the whole is surmounted by the kheker 
frieze. The list of offerings contains 97 entries, and 
is arranged in three rows, each entry being divided 
from the next by a vertical line. 

The first register, which is very short, gives the 
ceremony of purification. The foremost figure is 
kneeling, with his hands on the ground, while water 
is poured from behind him by another figure. This 
is exactly the attitude of the man in the determi- 
native of the word seth, the first entry in the list of 
offerings. Then comes a partially broken figure, 
who from his action appears to be offering incense. 
These three are inferior priests whose rank is not 
given ; they are followed by a klie7-i-heb priest wear- 
ing the scarf of office across his left shoulder and 
holding a roll of papyrus in his hand. Behind him 
are two more unnamed assistants, the first carries 
two pieces of cloth, the second opens a censer from 
which three rays arise. There is a better example 
on the fifth register, further down the wall, where 
the balls of incense and the three rays are painted 
red. I take these rays to be the flames and smoke 
rising from the burning incense. Lastly there is 



CHAMBER A. EAST WALL. 



21 



another klicri Jicb priest with his scarf and his 
roll. 

The second register is even shorter than the first, 
and is divided horizontally into two rows, both con- 
taining offerings. In the upper row, there is a good 
example of the pink lotus, which is much rarer than 
the blue variety in the sculptures. 

The third register is divided horizontally through 
a greater part of its length into two rows, and is 
entirely filled with offerings ; near the figure of User- 
neter, however, is a i'd:-priest sacrificing a bird. The 
chief points of interest in this register are the bowls 
filled with blue lotuses, and the wicker basket full of 
joints of meat. Baskets of meat somewhat similar 
to this are found in the offerings for Debehen 
(L. D. ii. 36) and Ra-shepses (L. D. ii. 64 bis). 
There are also jars with curious flaps at the 
shoulders which are coloured black or blue, but 
which, from the cross lines incised on them, are 
probably intended to represent basket-work. The 
small flat baskets, in which figs are almost always 
represented, are partly superseded here by a large 
curved square basket, at the four corners of which is 
a high handle shaped like the prow of a gondola. 
There are better examples on the east wall 
(Pl. XXII). 

In the fourth register are thirteen men walking in 
procession, the two sons of User-neter lead the way ; 
the eldest is named Ra-shepses, the second User- 
neter after his father. The wigs of these two 
personages are peculiar, and unlike any that I have 
seen in other tombs. Following User-neter is an 
unnamed man carrying papyrus stems, blue lotuses, 
and a tray of offerings ; then comes a hen-ka, whose 
name is Dua, bearing the haunch and heart of a 
victim and three birds ; both these figures wear 
short kilts with pleated fronts, and Dua has the end 
of the cloth drawn through his waist-belt. The 
fifth man has a basket of fruit and a goose ; the 
sixth is heavily laden with a covered dish and a tray 
of offerings on his shoulders, and with lotus blossoms 
over one arm and lotus roots over the other. The 
seventh figure carries the leg of an ox on his 
shoulder ; the eighth, who is an unnamed hen ka, 
has papyrus stems, three birds, and a pink lotus ; the 
ninth, carries two trays with a calf's head and loaves, 
three birds are slung by a rope round their wings 
over his left arm, and over his right arm are pink 
and blue lotuses ; the tenth brings a haunch, a heart, 
and two birds ; the eleventh holds in his arms a 
small deer with disproportionately long horns ; the 



twelfth has a basket of fruit and a vase ; and the 
last appears to have only a goose. 

The fifth register begins with a pile of offerings, 
and the remainder is filled by a procession of eleven 
men, the figures being rather crowded in order to get 
them into the space. The two foremost are ka- 
priests, one sacrifices a bird while the other opens 
the censer of burning, flaming incense. Of the other 
figures, the third carries a goose ; the fourth, a deer ; 
the fifth, a haunch, a heart, and two birds ; the 
sixth, a calf's head and a joint of meat ; the seventh, 
a basket of vegetables and a bunch of lotus blossoms ; 
the eighth, papyrus stems and a tray of loaves ; the 
ninth, lotus roots and a goose ; the tenth, a haunch 
and a heart ; the eleventh, a young calf. 

The lowest register stretches right across the wall ; 
and is occupied by scenes of sacrifice. It begins 
with four figures carrying portions of the victim. 
Then there is a group surrounding a slaughtered ox ; 
the butcher is in the act of removing the heart, 
turning round at the same time as if to speak. This 
appears to be the customary form at this operation. 
By the side of the victim a boy kneels on one knee, 
holding a large bowl to catch the blood. In other 
tombs a figure carrying away a bowl of blood is often 
seen (Quibell, Ramesseum, pl. xxxvi, p. 31), but 
this is the only example of the actual receiving of the 
blood in the appointed vessel. Another butcher 
carries awaj- a haunch, while the fourth member of 
the group sharpens his knife. The second ox is 
being dismembered by two butchers, the third being 
engaged in sharpening his knife. The third animal 
is a mahez-At&r: ; the front leg is being carried away 
by an assistant, the principal operator in the mean- 
while turns his head aside and plunges his hand into 
the body of the animal to remove the heart ; another 
assistant is making ready the knife. The fourth 
beast is already partially dismembered by two 
butchers with their assistants ; the scene shows the 
flaying of the animal. The last group is of a cow- 
herd "bringing the young Jiiahez-deev.^' 

45. The East Wall. The surface of this wall, 
from the base of the khekcr frieze to the top of the 
doorway, is occupied by a mass of offerings divided 
into six rows. Here are to be seen baskets of figs, 
bowls of lotuses, covered dishes with lotus-blossoms 
passed through the handles, jars of liquid, baskets of 
meat and of cakes, and all the other delicacies which 
an Egyptian hoped to enjoy in the other world. On 
each side of the door are three registers, in each of 



22 



TOMB OF USER-NETER. 



which is a man conducting animals to the sacrifice. 
On the right, or south, side the upper register 
contains a man " bringing the young r/iahea-deex." 
In the middle register a man, in a pleated kilt, leads 
four meek-looking hornless oxen. In the lowest 
register a cattle-herd is " bringing the young ox," 
The ox is of the breed with wide-spreading horns, 
but the left horn in this instance is deformed. The 
rope, with which the man controls the animal, divides 
into two, one part is attached to a kind of collar 
round the neck of the creature, the other is fastened 
in an unexplained manner to its mouth. Probably 
the artist intended to express the method of fastening 
which appears to have been customary at that period 
(QuiBELL, Raincsseiim, pi. xxxi). The rope passes in 
a loop over the herdsman's shoulder and behind his 
back. 

On the left, or north, side of the doorway, the 
upper register is precisely similar to the one on the 
opposite side. The middle register shows another 
" young ox " with wide spreading horns being led to 
the slaughter, and stopping to scratch itself with its 
hind leg. In the lowest register a man leads two 
hornless calves, and carries in his hand a curious 
roll or staff. 

46. The North Wall. This is very similar to 
the south wall, but there are some important points 
of difference. The kheker frieze, the list of offerings, 
the list of titles above the large figure of User-neter, 
are merely replicas of the opposite wall, and except 
for the position of the left hand the figure of User- 
neter is precisely the same as the other. 

In the first and second registers are scenes from the 
funeral rites. Two men, kneeling, offer a small vase 
in each hand ; in shape and size these vases are like 
the tiny stone jars found in the prehistoric graves. 
A kheri-hcb priest stands behind them, and is followed 
by two assistants carrying linen and incense, and 
another kheri-heb brings up the rear. 

The second register begins with a figure of which 
very little remains ; enough, however, is still visible 
to show that it is a kneeling man ; water is being 
poured on his hands by a man standing behind him ; 
he is followed by an incense-bearer, and then come 
three men with the vessels used in the sacred rites ; 
a kcs vase, a table for the offerings, of which many 
are to be seen in museums, and a large bowl with a 
spout, very similar to the spouted bowl in which the 
boy catches the victim's blood (Pl. XXI). 

The third register represents the offerings ; two 



men stand amid the piles of food, one sacrificing a 
bird, the other offering incense. The fourth register 
begins with the two sons, Ra-shepses sacrificing a 
bird and User-neter lifting the cover of the incense- 
burner. Behind them are thirteen men carrying 
offerings. The workmanship of these registers is 
very poor, and much of it has been slurred over 
evidently with the hope that the paint would cover 
all deficiencies. The objects carried in this proces- 
sion are of interest ; the third man has pieces of 
linen ; the fourth, a libation-vase ; the fifth, a scten- 
hetep, unfortunately this object is broken, it looks, 
however, like a flat tray carried on the shoulder. 
The sixth man has a table like the one in the second 
register, it is called an "altar," and on it is a large 
loaf; the seventh has papyrus stems and a small 
basket with a handle ; the eighth, a vase, lotus 
blossoms, and a bird ; the ninth, a tray of loaves, 
two birds, and papyrus stems (?) ; the tenth, a 
vase (?), a basket with handle, and lotus blossoms; 
the eleventh, a tray of fruit, lotus blossoms and 
roots, papyrus stems, and a bird, the workmanship 
is peculiarly careless in this figure. The twelfth has 
a haunch and a heart ; the thirteenth, lotus blossoms 
and two vases ; the fourteenth, a tray of fruit, lotus 
roots, and a long object, possibly papyrus stems, 
passed through his girdle ; the fifteenth, a goose. 

The heap of offerings in the fifth register is 
partially broken away ; it is remarkable for the un- 
usual number of pink lotuses; a great deal of colour, 
chiefly green, still remains. The procession of men, 
ten in number, is preceded, as usual, by the man 
sacrificing a bird and the man offering incense. 
These are probably, in every instance, the two sons, 
though the names are only given twice. The third 
man in the procession carries a goose ; the fourth, a 
haunch, a heart, and a joint ; the fifth, a large loaf, 
a tray laden with various objects, lotus blossoms, 
lotus roots, the last being quite unfinished, and 
recognizable only by the outline ; the sixth, a vase, 
a piece of linen (?), and a bird ; the seventh, a 
tray of fruit and a trussed goose ; the eighth, a 
haunch, another joint, and a heart ; the ninth, a 
large basket of fruit and vegetables, lotus blossoms, 
and lotus roots ; the tenth, a small deer. 

The sixth and lowest register, like that on the 
south wall, contains sacrificial scenes. It differs 
slightly in detail, but the unusual figure of the child 
with the bowl for the blood is repeated, unfortunately 
the outline of the bowl has almost vanished. In the 
group immediately following the broken portion of 



DOORWAY. 



23 



the wall is a figure of one of the butchers' assistants 
holding up the leg of the ox. This figure was 
originally made too small, and has been altered 
twice, with the result that it is possible to trace 
three heads, two bodies, and four arms. When 
painted over, the mistake would not be observed, 
even though the elaborately sculptured wig of the 
second head comes across the face as it was left 
finally. At the end of the register a herdsman is 
"bringing a young heifer," which appears to be 
giving trouble either by showing fight or by trying 
to run away. The herdsman is pulling with both 
hands and his foot at the rope, which is fastened 
either to the cow's lower jaw in the usual way, or 
perhaps to its near fore-leg, it is impossible to say 
which. The near fore-leg is pulled up towards the 
body, while a boy seizes the other, in order to pull 
the creature on its knees. Another boy, who has 
also come to the man's assistance, has hold of the 
animal's tail with both hands. 

Against the north wall is an altar of stone like that 
in the tomb of Ptahhetep II. It is uninscribed, and 
at the east end (the end furthest from the stele) is 
an arm like the arm of a sofa in miniature. This 
arm is circular in section, and only 2| in. in 
diameter. 

47. Doorway. The reveals of the doorway 
between chambers A and B (Pl. XXV) were origin- 
ally sculptured in several registers on each side. 
Very little remains in silu, but we found loose in the 
sand some fragments which evidently belonged to 
the doorway, though it was not possible to fit them 
all into their proper places. The scenes are those 
usually found in doorways, rows of bearers of offer- 
ings ; among the offerings lotuses are very con- 
spicuous. The bearers wear the pleated kilt which 
is very common in this tomb. The roof of the door- 
way is painted to imitate granite ; the drum 
(Pl. XXV) has the chief title and the name, " First 
under the King, User-neter ; " the hieroglyphs are in 
relief, and painted a brilliant green, ver\- different 
in tone to the greens of chamber A, which were 
intended to be seen on a dark background. 

48. Chamber B. Over the doorway is an in- 
scribed architrave ; two out of the three stones 
which compose it still remain, the third had dis- 
appeared before the time of Mariette. The inscrip- 
tion consists of six lines, and terminates in a figure 
of User-neter seated on a chair holding a long staff 



in his left hand, and a cloth in his right. His wig 
is long with straight curls, and he wears a starched 
kilt and an elaborate necklace. 

At the north end of this wall is the niche 
(Pl. XXIV). On the north side much of the colour 
still remained, especially on the figure of the wife. 
This had been carved in the plaster with which the 
faulty parts of the stone had been overlaid, and the 
colours had sunk into the plaster. The effect of the 
figure nmst have been brilliant in the extreme ; the 
flesh tints were yellow ; the wig black, marked out 
along the edge of each curl with a line of white ; the 
ribbon, which is tied in big bows round the head 
was red, green, and white ; the necklace was blue 
and green ; the dress dark-green; and the lotus blue. 
No colour remained on the corresponding figure 
on the south side, but some of the hieroglyphs 
were painted on the stone without having been 
sculptured. 

From the wearing of the stone it would seem that 
the niche had been open for many years, and it was 
probably here that many of the offerings were made 
and the ceremonies performed for the dead. This 
chamber with its niche may very well have been the 
Usekht, where an offering (the Hetcp-Usckht of the 
lists) was presented ; the inner tomb chamber with 
its elaborate sculpture being reserved for great 
festivals only. 

49. Chamber C. This small chamber was un- 
inscribed, and was opened only because I wished to 
see where the north door of Chamber B led. The 
walls are of rough blocks, and the roof, consisting 
of two slabs running east and west, is intact. 

To my uninstructed eyes, the west wall appears 
to be giving way, but as the chamber has never 
been filled with sand, and yet has lasted all these 
centuries, it is probable that there is no real danger. 
A doorway leads eastward from this room to 
Chamber D. 

The roof of the doorway is painted to imitate 
granite ; the drum (Pl. XXV) has been covered 
with stucco, in which hieroglyphs have been incised, 
and then painted green. Both the paint and the 
stucco were so fragile that it was almost impossible 
to copy the signs. The inscription is almost the 
same as on the drum of the inner door, " First 
under the King, User-neter, the old." 
. Chamber D. This is another uninscribed cham- 
ber, also built of rough blocks. It is the largest 
chamber in the tomb, at least as far as we excavated. 



24 



TOMB OF PTAHSHEPSES I. 



though it is possible that other and larger chambers 
may lie beyond, 

The roofing slabs were enormous, two remained 
in position at the south end ; the one, which had 
covered the portion over the doorway, had dis- 
appeared ; and further to the north, one had slipped 
off the west wall, and was lying at a sharp angle, 
supported by the east wall and the sand. All the 
roofing stones in this chamber were in bad condition, 
flaking away on the under side, the sand under them 
being strewn with fragments. 

Under the roof at the south end we found a 
few pots of the XVIIIth and XXIInd Dynasties, 
evidently from a later burial. 

50. Chamber A. West Wall. Limestone blocks, 

stele. 
Heh'j>-stone at base of stele ; 
measurements 4 ft. 11 in. X i ft. 
10 in. X 8j in. from lower step, 
4 in. from upper step. 
South Wall. Limestone blocks. 
Three lowest courses 
rough and painted, 
upper courses sculp- 
tured. 
East Wall. Limestone blocks. 
Doorway, height 
8 ft. i^ in. Window, 
measurements 6 in. 
X 3 ft. 
North Wall. Limestone blocks. 
Three lowest courses 
rough and painted, 
upper courses sculp- 
tured. 

Measurements of 
altar 5 ft. li- in 
X I ft. 7i in.x yi-in 
— I ft. o] ; arm 
width 2h, height 2j 
Roof. Intact. Four stones run 

ning N. and S. 
Floor. Paved, slopes upwards from 
E. to W. ; at /2£ie/> stone a step 
4 in. high. 
Chamber B. West Wall. Limestone blocks. 

Doorway, height 
8 ft. liin. Inscribed 
architrave above ; 
reveals sculptured. 



drum inscribed. 
Roof of doorway 
painted red to imi- 
tate granite. 
Little wall, measure- 
ments, I ft. 7i X gi 
in. X 2 ft. 9 in. 
Niche, sculptured 
and painted, height 
6 ft. 6 in. 
South Wall. Limestone blocks. 

No decoration. 
East Wall. Limestone blocks. 

No decoration. 
North Wall. Limestone blocks. 
Doorway, height 
6 ft. 9 in. Roof of 
doorway painted to 
imitate granite. 
Roof. Two out of three stones in 
position, running E. and W., 
painted to imitate granite. 
Floor. Paved. 
Chamber C. Walls. Limestone blocks unsciilp- 
tured. 
Roof. Intact. Two slabs 

running E. and W. 
Floor. Not seen. 
Chamber D. Walls. Limestone blocks, rough 
and unsculptured. 
Roof. Two slabs in posi- 
tion, running E. and W. ; 
one fallen. 
Floor. Not seen. 
Doorway to Chamber C. 
Drum inscribed ; roof of 
doorway painted to imi- 
tate granite. 



CHAPTER X. 

TOMB OF PTAHSHEPSES I. 

61. This little tomb is not noticed by Mariette, 
though he excavated it among the others. It is 
very small and its chief beauty lies in the colour of 
its painted walls. The mastaba itself is of brick, 
the tomb chamber being lined with slabs of white 
limestone, from 3^ in. thick and upwards. It is a 
small chamber and has been made still smaller by a 



THE STELE. 



25 



mud-brick wall at the north and south sides, reach- 
ing originally from floor to ceiling, and extending 
2 ft. g in. from the limestone walls. On the south 
side the brick wall has been destroyed to within 
about 3j ft. from the ground, but on the north side 
the wall remains to a height of nearly 6 ft. That 
these are part of the original construction is shown 
by the painting of the deceased on the northern 
wall(PL. XXVII), which has been broken away only 
at the top, and by the fact that the roof is painted 
red in imitation of granite except on the portions 
covered by the walls, these remain uncoloured. 
The tomb has been considerably damaged ; holes 
are knocked in the limestone walls, evidently with 
the purpose of discovering the serdab, but as Mariette 
has no record of this tomb it is uncertain whether 
the search was successful. 

52. The West Wall. The west wall is occupied 
by the stele (Pls. XXVI and XXXIV), an erection 
which owes its interest to the patterns with which 
it was profusely decorated. The lower part was 
painted red to imitate granite, the figures and 
hieroglyphs being yellow. Here again were found 
traces of plaster, the hieroglyphs and part of the 
figure being filled up so as to form a flat surface. 
The figures represent Ptahshepses standing, holding 
a staff in one hand, and the papyrus sceptre in the 
other. The chief beauty lay, however, in the upper 
part, where each rectangular space was filled by a 
pattern in colours, the spaces between being also 
painted in patterns or in squares of flat colour. The 
effect must have been brilliant in the extreme, 
though probably perfectly harmonious, as all the 
colours, with the exception of red, appear to have 
been of the same tone. 

The colours are represented in our drawing by 
heraldic shading : vertical lines = red ; horizontal = 
blue ; diagonal = green ; dots = yellow. 

In the upper part of the stele is the usual conven- 
tional representation of the deceased, seated and 
stretching out his hands towards a table of offerings, 
below which is a short list enumerating the chief 
offerings which he requires. Below is a band giving 
his name and titles. 

Above the stele and against the roof are the 
remains of a pattern which originally continued all 
round the chamber, and of which small fragments 
are to be seen above the entrance door. It is the 
same pattern as that in the painted chamber of the 
tomb of Ptahhetep II (Pl. XV). 



53. The South Wall. Nothing remains but a 
fragment of the inner brick wall, and beyond it are 
the limestone slabs which Hne the chamber. 

East Wall. The limestone blocks are covered 
with a thin coating of plaster, on which are painted 
scenes of sacrifice, and figures of bearers of offerings 
(Pl. XXVII). There are three registers ; the upper 
one, which is very indistinct, gives the usual scene 
of the slaughter of sacrificial cattle; the inscriptions, 
if there ever were any, have entirely disappeared. 
The second register, of which a fragment remains 
across the doorway, also shows the procession of 
bearers of offerings ; the lowest register, on both 
sides of the door, gives part of the same procession. 
The entire painting is greatly mutilated, but it is 
possible to discover what many of the objects are 
which are being carried. Below these there have 
been tables of offerings, one on each side of the 
door, but it is impossible to say with any certainty 
what objects are represented, as little more than 
mere traces of colour still remains. 

Across the entrance door is the round lintel which 
was invariably used in tombs of the Old Kingdom. 
It bears the principal title and the name of the 
deceased in dark green hieroglyphs on a red ground. 

The North Wall. The brick wall, broken at 
the top, has been plastered smoothly to receive a 
design in colour. The deceased is represented (Pl. 
XXVII) seated before a table of offerings, on which 
the usual upright sword-like leaves are shown ; they 
are painted a yellowish brown, showing that the 
traditional colour of the object was remembered 
though its real origin was forgotten. The face is 
broken away, but part of the head remains. Beyond 
are a few traces of a pile of offerings heaped up 
beside the table. 

The ceiling is composed of seven limestone slabs 
which cross the roof in a single span. The red 
paint with which they were coloured extends no 
further than the limit of the brick wall. The floor is 
paved with limestone blocks, and at the foot of the 
stele is a grey granite table of offerings, set in the 
ground and sloping inwards towards the stele 
(Pl. XXVII). It is greatly worn in the middle, the 
Hetep being merely a thin shell and the hieroglyphs 
having completely disappeared. The conventional 
representations of cakes are, however, still quite 
perfect. 



54. West Wall. 



Limestone stele 
Table 



of ofl'erings. 



measure- 

E 



26 



TOMD OF PTAHSHEPSES II. 



ments, 4 ft. o^l in. x i ft. 2 in. 
X 5 in. 

South Wall. Limestone blocks with inner 
mud brick wall broken to 
within about 3 ft. of the 
ground. 

East Wall. Limestone blocks covered with 
plaster and painted. Height 
of doorway, 7 ft. 4! in. 

North Wall. Limestone blocks with inner 
mud-brick wall, broken only 
at the top. Measurements 
of bricks, 11^ in. X 5^ in. x 
3 in. 

Roof. Intact. Seven blocks, running E. and 
W. ; painted red except where 
covered by the brick walls. 

Floor. Paved. 

Height of chamber, g ft. 10^ in. 



CHAPTER XI. 

TOMB OF PTAHSHEPSES II. 

55. The tomb of Ptahshepses II (Mar., Mast., E 
I and 2) is due north of Ptahshepses I. According 
to Mariette it is a doublt? tomb, the other part 
belonging to Sabu, surnamed Abba, whose relation- 
ship to Ptahshepses it is not possible to determine. 
As all the sculptures from the tomb of Sabu are 
now in the Cairo Museum, we did not open that 
part, but cleared only the portion belonging to 
Ptahshepses. Unfortunately we had no time to 
copy the very interesting scenes from Sabu's tomb in 
the Museum. 

Mariette remarks that the walls of the tomb of 
Ptahshepses are covered with plaster too hard to 
remove, and on that account he could not copy it. 
The walls were certainly thickly coated with plaster, 
and but for Mariette's words and a few hollows here 
and there showing hieroglyphs underneath, I should 
have supposed the walls to be blank. The plaster 
was hard, but fortunately it came off in flakes, dis- 
closing scenes and inscriptions beneath (Pes. XXIX, 
XXX). Two days' hard work were required to clear 
it away ; and this work we did ourselves, the stone 
being too soft and friable to trust to the unskilful 
hands of the workmen, it being a delicate task to 



clear the plaster out of the hollows of the incised 
hieroglyphs. 

56. The tomb is of fine limestone from Mokattam, 
according to Mariette, the outer walls being of a 
silicious limestone. The roof is still intact, and a 
few blocks of the flooring remain. The stele (Pl. 
XXVIII) is of limestone, painted red to imitate 
granite, the hieroglyphs and the two figures of the 
deceased at the top being incised and coloured 
green, and the figures of the deceased at the base 
are incised also, and painted yellow. The cavetto 
at the top is merely painted and not sculptured ; no 
colour remains, the lines showing dark against the 
stone. The names of the sacred oils on each side of 
the stele are incised, and the hierogl}phs are painted 
in their proper colours. In several places the 
original drawing, in red paint, of the sign, still 
remains, showing that the sculptor worked inside 
the lines of the first sketch, and in every instance he 
has improved on the curves of the original. 

The table of ofterings (Pl. XXXI, 8) was at the 
foot of the stele ; it is very worn, and was partially 
plastered up ; but whether by design or by the 
running-down of the plaster from the stele I could 
not determine. There is no inscription on it, only 
rough representations of the off"erings, three circular 
cakes, two ordinary jars for containing liquid, 
probably beer, and a vase for pouring libations. 
The stone is placed so that the broken part touches 
the stele. 

57. The South Wall. The south wall is in 
much worse condition than the north wall, being 
greatlj' broken in parts. The inscription above the 
head of Ptahshepses, and the list of offerings are the 
same as on the north wall. The representation of 
Ptahshepses is slightly diflerent in attitude from that 
on the north wall ; his right hand is stretched out to 
the table of offerings, his left hand rests on his leg 
and holds an object which looks like a folded cloth. 
Between him and the table are two vessels of the 
same shape as those on the north \vall, the lower 
one resting on a stand. 

The register below the list of offerings contains 
two rows of offerings ; then comes a /t«-priest who 
carries on his left shoulder a large basket with 
loaves, vegetables, and joints of meat. In his right 
hand he holds a rope, with which he leads two goats. 
Behind him are the butchers cutting up a sacrificed 
o.\. 



NORTH WALL. 



27 



The next register, which is partially destroyed, 
contains piled-up heaps of offerings. 

The third register begins with a little list. " A 
thousand hanks of thread, a thousand pieces of 
cloth, a thousand loaves, a thousand cakes, a 
thousand jars (of beer)." Then comes a man 
named Men-ahy, carrying on his left shoulder a 
trayful of meat, bread, and fruit. In his right hand 
he holds two birds by their wings, and also a rope 
with which he leads two small sturdy goat-like 
animals. This personage appears again among the 
bearers of offerings in the doorway (Pl. XXXI). 
Two unnamed servants follow, the hrst of whom 
■carries on his right shoulder a tray on which a bird 
only can be distinguished ; across his left arm he 
holds papyrus stalks entwined with lotuses ; and he 
leads by a rope three small deer with long horns. 
The last man has a large goose in one arm, and in 
the right hand he holds three birds by the wings, 
while he also leads a small animal, probably a calf, 
by a rope. 

The lowest register contains eight bearers of 
offerings. The lirst carries the leg of an ox, and is 
Sabu, the son of the deceased. The second also 
carries an ox-leg, and is named, " His son, Ptah- 
shepses." The third, unnamed, carries two geese in 
one arm, and a jar in the other hand. The other 
five men carry birds, three or four each, and wring 
their necks. Above the fifth man are his name and 
office roughly scratched on the stone, as though by 
an unskilled hand, " The /'^-servant, loving his lord, 
Ankh-menkh}-." 

58. North Wall (Pl. XXIX). The sculptures 
on this wall, with the exception of the list of 
offerings, are in relief, the list only being incised. 
This was very fortunate for us, as the plaster came 
away more easily from the raised work than from 
the incised hieroglyphs. The upper part of the wall 
is occupied by the titles of Ptahshepses and by the 
list of offerings. 

Ptahshepses is seated before the table of offerings 
with his right hand outstretched, and his left hand, 
which holds some indeterminate object, is against 
his breast. He wears a necklace and bracelets, and 
the folds of his garment are indicated. Before him 
are piles of offerings and bearers of offerings. In 
the upper register, immediately below the list of 
offerings, there is a double row of cakes, fruits, 
joints, and vases ; then comes a man bearing on his 
shoulder a leg of a sacrificed ox. He is probably 



the same person that appears in a lower register. 
Next are two butchers cutting off the front leg of a 
slaughtered animal. Lastly, there are two men, 
each carrying the leg of an ox ; one is called Nesu- 
ptah and appears again in the lowest register. 

The second register is filled with offerings, birds, 
joints of meat, fruit, loaves, and jars piled up in 
confusion. 

In the third register, between Ptahshepses and 
the stand of the table of offerings are two vessels 
with spouts, of the shape of certain copper vessels 
found in tombs of the 1st Dynasty. On the other 
side of the table are three jars in a stand, and above 
them is a short list of offerings. Four bearers of 
offerings fill up the register ; the first carries a calf 
on his shoulder. The second leads an antelope 
with his left hand, the rope passing round the 
animal's neck and chest ; on his right shoulder he 
carries a tray laden with cakes and vegetables, with 
a basket hanging from his right wrist. The third 
carries on his right shoulder two traj's, one abo\e 
the other ; in the upper one is a meat-offering, an 
ox's head and the joint called sut ; the lower tray 
contains a loaf and two covered baskets ; in his left 
hand are two birds carried by the wings. The 
fourth, who is called merely a /^rt-servant and is 
without a name, has a tray on his right shoulder 
with offerings of vegetables and loaves, and in his 
left hand two papyrus-reeds. 

The lowest register contains eight men, of whom 
the first three are said to be the sons of Ptahshepses. 
As all three bear the same name, though with 
different titles, it is possible that these may be three 
representations of one person, especiall}' as on the 
opposite wall in the corresponding scene two sons 
only are mentioned, Sabu and Ptahshepses. The 
first man, " his son Ptahshepses," carries a leg of an 
ox ; the second, with a similar burden, is also a son, 
and his name also is Ptahshepses ; the third carries 
a very large goose in both arms, he is " His son, 
Ptah-sheps." After these three come five men, with 
their names and titles, all of whom are sacrificing 
the birds which they carry, by wringing their necks. 
The last man is without either name or title. 

59. The sculpture on the outer walls and the 
doorway (Pl. XXXI) is of much finer and more 
artistic work than in the inner part of the tomb, and 
is probably by a different hand. No. 3, on the 
south side of the doorway, shows Ptahshepses 
holding a staff and a mace, and preceded by his son. 



28 



MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 



Sabu, and followed b}- another diminutive figure, 
probably the other son Ptahshepses, of whom 
nothing remains but the legs and feet. Below are 
three bearers of offerings ; the first carries a goose, 
bunches of onions (?), and an indeterminate object 
in the left arm, and three birds in the right hand. 
The second carries a tra}-, now completely destroyed, 
and bunches of onions (?) ; the third carries a small 
deer and lotuses. 

The north side of the doorway (No. 7) is destroj'ed 
with the exception of the three bearers of offerings, 
the first of whom is Men-ah}', who is also represented 
in the inner part of the tomb on the south wall. 
These hieroglyphs are very finely and carefulK' 
sculptured. Men-ahj' carries a bird by the wings in 
the left hand, and in the right an object so much 
destroyed that it is impossible to determine its 
nature. It is possibly a bunch of lotuses, of which 
the stalks are wrapped round his hand. He is 
followed by Merhetep, who has a tray of loaves on 
his shoulder, a bunch of lotus roots with long stalks 
over his arm, and a lotus with two buds in his hand. 
The last man in the procession is unnamed, he 
carries three birds by the wings in one hand, and a 
large goose in the other arm. 

According to Mariette {Mast., p. 378), the north 
side of the doorway was still intact, and had a 
representation of Ptahshepses with his son Ptah- 
shepses and an unnamed daughter. 

Nos. I and 2 are on the outer walls which face 
east, and represent Ptahshepses and his wife Anthat. 
The fragments, 5 and 6, which were lying loose 
in the sand, probably belong to the inscription 
above the heads of the figures, but I was unable to 
fit them into their proper places. 

60. No. 4 is the architrave, of which we found 
only this small fragment lying loose in the sand. 
Mariette {Mast., p. 377) gives a complete copy of the 
inscription, showing that it was intact when he 
opened the tomb ; therefore it must have been 
destroyed in recent years. He also gives (p. 378) an 
inscription from a cylindrical drum which has 
entirel)- disappeared, " Honoured by Ptah Resi-anb- 
ef, the high priest, he who is in the two houses, 
Ptahshepses, the honoured one." 

61. West \\'all. Stele, limestone, painted red, 

hieroglyphs green, figures 
yellow. Top of wall slopes 
upwards towards the north. 



Measurement of table of offerings 3 ft. 4 x 

I ft. 3^x6 \ in. 
North and South Walls. Limestone blocks. 
Roof. Intact. Two slabs of stone running 

north and south. 
Floor. Paved. 
Height of chamber, 7 ft. 11 i in. at south end, 

8 ft. li at north end. 
Outer Walls. Batter | in 12. 



CHAPTER XII. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 

On Pl. XXX\T. are a few small objects and 
inscriptions which were copied for some definite 
reason. 

62. I is an almost illegible stele of the XlXth 
Dynast}', which was found b\- the Qufti workmen 
when digging the foundations of our house at 
Saqqara. 

Nos. 2 and 3 have already- been described on 
P- 3- 

63. No. 9. The Coptic inscription was found by 
accident on visiting the work of some scbakhin who 
were digging in the desert not far from the head of 
the dyke-road. It was due to Miss Hansard's 
quickness of observation that we found this inscrip- 
tion, which was on a broken stone lying on the 
ground in such a position as to be scarcely visible. 
I believe it is now in the Cairo Museum. The 
sebakliin had apparently come upon a Christian 
church, stone lined, with small stone pillars of 
a debased Roman t3pe, but we saw no other 
inscriptions, except a few fragments of hieroglyphs, 
though we searched carefully on more than one 
occasion. The site appeared from the remains of 
houses to have once been a village, and the pieces 
of painted pottery, Nos. 4 — 8, were found among 
the ruins. A great deal of Roman glass could be 
seen, but we could not find any that was of any 
interest or value, merely small fragments. There 
was however a lump of green glass, apparently from 
a glass-worker's workshop, showing that a great part 
of the glass was probably of local manufacture. I 
also found an amphora-handle, stamped with a 
monogram, see Cairo Cat. 26,110. 



COPTIC INSCRIPTION. 



29, 



64. Coptic Inscription. This is described by 
Mr. Crum as follows : — Apparently the right-hand 
portion of a slab, Pl. XXXVI, opposite the end 
of L 2, being the broken arm of the central cross. 
It commemorates certain officials of a monastery, 
probably that of [" our] holy [father] Apa Jeremias," 
i.e. the monastery in the " hill of Memphis," well 
known from other documents (v. Krall, Corpus 
Rainer ii, Rechts-urkunden, p. 79, Amelineau 
Geographie, 248 ; Eg. Expl. Fund's Report 1902 — 03, 
62.) This Jeremias seems to have lived about the 
year 500 {v. John of Nikiu, p. 488). The other 
names are Apa Alexandros, perhaps the woman's 

title, Ama , and Nishteroo[u], who was 

SevTepdpio^, or second in authority in the com- 
munity. This last name occurs only once else- 
where and that in a deed dated from the verj' 
monastery in question (v. Krall in Recueil de Trav., 
vi, 66). It is probably a Middle-Egyptian variant 
of Nishgroou (Zoega, 366), and is transcribed in 
Greek as NiaT6pwo<;, NiarepCov (Migne, PC, 65, 305). 

As to any other inscriptions or objects found on 
that site I cannot speak. I should fancy from the 
broken pottery and other objects which we saw 
scattered about that it might have been worth 
while to excavate the site for Roman and Coptic, or 
even Ptolemaic, remains. Now it is too late, the 
sebakhin have worked their will on it, and any historic 
value which it may have possessed is destroyed. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

OFFERINGS. 

65. Hyaenas. It appears from the sculptures in 
the tombs that in the Old Kingdom hyaenas were 
amongst the domestic animals and were probably 
used as food. In the tomb of Sekhemka (Pl. VII) 
among the animals which are being taken to the 
sacrifice is a hyaena, carried in the arms of a /&«-priest. 
In the tomb of Peheniuka (L. D. ii, 45) at Saqqara 
there is again a hyaena being carried among the 
deer and cattle which are offered to the deceased. In 
the tombs of Thentha (L. D. ii, 30), of Ra-en-kau 
(L. D. ii, 15 b.), of Neb-em-akhet (L. D. ii, 14 c), 
all at Gizeh, and of Meru, surnamed Beba (D.-wiES, 
Sheikh Said, pis. xix, xx), at Sheikh Said, hyaenas 
are led by herdsmen with the other domestic 
animals. In the tomb of Ptahhetep II (Pl. X) 
there are traces of a hyaena led by one of the farm- 



women, but this is rare, the}- are usuall\- brought by 
the herdsmen. In the tomb of Khafra-ankh (L. D. 
ii, 11) at Gizeh, a large female hyaena is being 
driven by a man holding its tail ; and at Deir el 
Gebrawi, in the tombof Asa(DAViES, Deir el Gebrawi 
ii, pl. xviii), a female hyaena, called Iiethet nefert, 
is being pulled forward by a man who appears to be 
using a certain amount of force. In the tomb of 
Anta (Petrie, Deshasheli. pl. ix) at Deshasheh, a 
huge hyaena is being led b}- two men. These 
instances show the hyaenas to be not uncommon 
among the animals offered to the dead. 

But there is still further proof that the hyaena was 
as domesticated as the antelopes and other so-called 
"wild" animals with which we are familiar in the 
sculptures. In the tomb of Ptahhetep at Saqqara 
(QuiBELL, Ramesseiim. pl. xxxiii), a huntsman is 
leading hyaenas with the hunting dogs, but in this 
instance they are evidently not for food, though 
quite domesticated. In a farmyard scene in the 
tomb of Shepseskaf-ankh (L. D. ii, 50 b) at Gizeh, 
there is a h3-aena tethered by a short rope to a hoop 
in the ground in exactly the same manner as other 
domestic animals. In another farmyard scene in 
a tomb (L. D. ii, 96) at Saqqara is a herd of 
creatures with bushy tails, which, though not well 
drawn, cannot be taken for anything but hyaenas. 
And in the unpublished tombs of Kagemni 
(photograph in Edwards' collection) and Mera at 
Saqqara there are scenes in which hyaenas are 
being fattened by having food forced down their 
throats ; similar scenes in which birds are fattened 
are well-known. 

From this accumulation of evidence it appears 
certain that in the Old Kingdom the hyaena was 
recognized as an animal for food, and that attention 
was paid to the fattening of the creatures and to 
getting them into good condition for eating by feed- 
ing them on clean and wholesome food. 

It is not clear where the supply of hyaenas came 
from. They are not found in hunting scenes on the 
desert, nor in the representations of animals caught 
in nets. It seems probable, considering the number 
of females which appear, that they were bred in con- 
finement, like any other animal which was kept in 
the farmyard for use as food. 

I have not been able to find a scene of the slaughter 
of hyaenas for the use of the dead, nor can I identify 
any of the joints among the offerings as portions of 
this animal. 

On the ivory handle of a prehistoric flint knife in 



30 



OFFERINGS. 



the Pitt-Rivers collection (Petrie and Quibell, 
Naqada and Ballas, pi. Ixxvii.) hyaenas are carved. 
It was a sacrificial knife, and the animals figured on 
the handle are possibly the sacrificial animals. 

66. Lotus. In many of the Old Kingdom tombs, 
we find among the objects brought for the dead are 
bunches of lotus, both bud and blossom, which are 
carried with the long drooping stalks over the 
bearer's arm while his hands are occupied with other 
objects. The blue and pink lotuses are so carefully 
differentiated that there is no possibility of mistaking 
them. Sometimes we find (Pls. XXV, XXXI) 
bearers of offerings carrying a bunch of roots, these, 
like the blossoms, are hung by their long drooping 
stalks over the arm. They have been usually iden- 
tied with the lieziu of the lists of offerings, and trans- 
lated " Onions," but the growth is not that of the 
onion. The stalks are in every respect like those of 
the lotus flowers, and they always occur in a pro- 
cession where the lotus is a prominent feature. It 
must be then the lotus-root of which the Greek 
authors make constant mention, and which they tell 
us was largely eaten by the Egyptians. Pliny says 
that the lotus root was the size of a quince ; the out- 
side covered with a black skin like that of a chest- 
nut ; the inside being white and good to eat. He 
preferred it boiled or roasted, but it appears to have 
been eaten raw as well. Diodorus says, " They made 
them bread of Loton, the invention whereof was 
ascribed to Isis, and by others to one of the most 
ancient kings of Egypt, named Menas." This 
shows that the use of the lotus as food was con- 
sidered to be co-eval with corn, which was also 
introduced by Isis. 

Herodotus also tells us that the Egyptians " eat 
the root of the lotus, which is round and equal to an 
apple in bigness. Another lily grows in the same 
places, much like a rose, with a certain fruit found 
at the foot of the stem, in form not unlike a wasp"s 
nest, and covered with a pellicule containing divers 
kernels of the size of an olive stone, which are eaten 
either tender or dried " (Littlebury's translation). 

Another part of the lotus was also used as food. 
Pliny relates that the seed vessel, which he says 
resembles a poppy-head, contains seeds like millet. 
The people, he sa3's, let the seed-vessels deca}', then 
remove the seeds by washing, and when dry they 
grind them to make a kind of bread. Herodotus, too, 
'mentions that the Egyptians eat " the heart of the 
plant," evidently the seed-vessel, for he describes it 



as being like a poppy-head ; that " they mould it into 
a paste, and bake as bread."' This lotus bread is not 
yet identified among the offerings. 

67. In Pls. IX, X, XII there are several women 
who carry stems of papyrus across the shoulder, and 
others who carry on their baskets a bundle of short, 
straight stalks, like candles. These stalks are 
evidently the edible part of the papyrus according to 
Herodotus, who says, "The byblus they annually 
gather in the fens, and divide into two parts ; the 
head is reserved for other uses, but the lower part, 
being of a cubit in length, is eaten and publicly sold. 
When any one is desirous to eat these stems dressed 
in the best manner, he stews them in a clean pan " 
(Littlebury's translation). 

Diodorus appears to have seen the pap3-rus root 
eaten as well as the stalks, " they live upon the roots 
of bulrushes and others, which they roast in the 
embers, and with the stalks of plants gathered in 
the marshes, sometimes boiled, sometimes roasted, 
and often raw." 

68. The sacred oils or perfumes are generally 
seven in number, but in the early lists of offerings 
(Pls. I and II, and Petrie, Medimi, pi. xiii) five 
others are mentioned, while in chap, cxlvi of the 
Book of the Dead there are others which are not 
found in the lists. 

Pliny, in his Natural Historj', gives some interest- 
ing information about Egyptian perfumes. Egypt, 
he says, was the country which produced the best 
aromatic substances, and though the most celebrated 
perfume of ancient times came from the island of 
Delos, yet the perfume of Mendes was hardly inferior 
to it. 

His description of " metopium " applies very well 
to the perfumes made of a liquid oil thickened with 
other substances. The foundation of metopium was 
oil of bitter almonds, to which were added ompha- 
cium, cardamoms, juncus, calamus, honey, wine, 
myrrh, balsam seed, galbanum, and terebinth resin. 
Metopium appears to have been valued ver}' highly 
as a perfume. 

Dr. Walker has very kindly given me the following 
notes on these ingredients : — 

" OinpliaciiDii is the juice of unripe grapes, accord- 
ing to Pliny, but the Greek oficlia^ is used also for 
unripe olives, and in fact anj- unripe fruit. Jiincns and 
calamus are much the same, both are used for ' rush ' 
and ' reed,' in fact A.KE in Coptic is translated as 



SACRED OILS AND PERFUMES. 



31 



both j/nu'/is ^nd calamus, "l ^^^ ((j km KAJU. is the 

common hieroglyph used for Jiuiciis, and there is a 
rtOVrte ftKA^AX in the Paris Codex 44, fol. 83, for 
which the Greek gloss reads fjieXevT^piov , ' honey of 
the inside,' evidently a sweet juice extracted from 
the root of rush. A calaimts odoratits is mentioned 
I Pliny, which is evidently the sweet rush or ' spice- 
wort.' Galbaniim is used in our Pharmacopoeia. It 
is an aromatic gum-resin obtained from plants in 
India and the Levant, chiefly used as a plaister. 
Tcrcbintli resin, obtained from different kinds of pine 
trees, is also used only for plaisters." 

Another perfume was obtained from a grain like 
that of coriander, white and aromatic. It was first 
boiled in oil and then crushed, and the perfume 
which was the result was called " cyprus." The best 
came from Canopus on the banks of the Nile. 

Two plants which yielded a scented oil were the 
" myrobalanus " and the "malobathro," of which the 
best kinds came from Egypt. The fruit of a palm 
called " adipsos " was much valued ; it had the odour 
of a quince and was used before it ripened. There 
is confirmation of this statement, as jars containing 
palm oil have been found even in prehistoric graves 
(Petrie, Diospolis Parva, p. 15), and the sand-filling 
of the tomb of King Mersekha (Petrie, Royal 
Tombs i, p. 14.) was saturated with perfumed oil, 
the scent of which was still noticeable. The salvia 
aetliiopis, called " marum " by Plin)-, was also used, 
though the Egyptian variety was not considered 
equal to the Lydian. 

At Edfu there is a text which gives elaborate 
directions for making the heknn perfume, giving 
the exact weight of every ingredient (Dumichen, 
A.Z., 1879, looj. The principal ingredient is the 

^^ ° W ^^''^ nezeinui, " Fruit of the sweet tree," 
which may be the mjTobalanus or malobathro 
of Pliny, as from the fruit of both these plants a 
perfumed oil is expressed. The ingredients of the 
perfume are : — • 

Pert nezeinui. 

Ajiii-resin (i.e. frankincense) of two qualities. 

Ab-iesin. 

A>^plant (f '^ ) 

T/ies/ieJ>s-pl3.nt Q ^^ (J) 

Wood charcoal. 

S/iel>en-p\3.nt. 

Best wine of the Oasis. 



Water. 

Nemb-ves'm (_(U. M^ '<^\. 

All the dry materials were to be pounded and sifted 
before being mixed with the wine. The pert-nczeniui 
was to be pressed and boiled over a quick fire, then 
it was added to the other ingredients, and the whole 
compound was boiled again, and poured ofi" into a 
/J'/^f/'t'/;-vessel. The whole process took about eleven 
days. 

Another recipe is given for the °u^ mezet perfume. 

This is possibly a late name for one of the sacred 
oils of these lists. A sacrificial ox, ceremonially 
pure, is to be slaughtered and the fat cut off with a 
clean knife. The fat is to be melted and poured 
into a stone vessel. When all impurities are 
removed, it is to be perfumed with herbs and mixed 
with the wine of the Oasis ; this mixing is to be 
done in a golden vessel with a gold or silver imple- 
ment. The fat is then to be cooked with aromatic 
herbs, and coloured red with the flowers of the Nesti 
and Nevii plants ; when finished it is poured into a 
stone vessel. This perfume is made on the modern 
principle ; except that beef suet is used instead of 
lard, and wine instead of rectified spirits. 

In the Ebers Papyrus there is a receipt for 
another perfume {kyplii) made of dried myrrh, 

juniper berries, incense, gyu-'p\z.\\\. (ffltls"^), 

(1 (I ^ 3) of 

Northern Syria, _y«/!v/« ((1(1 j, and zeni- 

.'^«-plant C^ ^ ^ -^^ II J, ground, mixed, and 

cooked. It was used for perfuming houses and 
clothes, or when prepared with honey and made 
into pills it was used by women for perfuming the 
breath. 

Pereonne {A.Z. 1870, 152) describes a perfume 
found in a vase of Thothmes III : " Ce parfum a 
ete obtenu en faisant une pate avec de I'huile ou un 
corps gras liquide quelconque, et un melange de 
chaux, d'oliban et de myrrhe, melange qui aurait 
ete additionne d'une petite quantite de benjoin." 
He says also that the same composition is still 
used in Egypt and is called Bouiikourrc-bare, " Per- 
fume of the frontier." 

The two oils which are placed last in the lists 
are not perfumes, though they always occur with 
the perfumes. The hatet ash, or " oil of cedar," is 
necessarily one of the principal offerings for the dead, 



32 



OFFERINGS. 



for, as Herodotus tells us, it was largely used in 
embalming. It is found in all the lists, and is one of 
the oils mentioned in the Book of the Dead. 

The hatet thehennti, or " Libyan oil," is said by 
M. Maspero to be the oil used to saturate the four 
wicks with which fire for the dead was lit, both at 
the consecration of the tomb and on the festival of 
Uag. It may be the oil which Pliny describes 
under the name of " kiki," of which he says that 
after sprinkling the seeds with salt, an oil is ex- 
pressed, unpleasant for food, but good for burning 
in lamps. Herodotus mentions the same oil and 
gives a description of the method of preparing it : 
" Some bruise it in a press and squeeze out the oil, 
•others put it in pans, which, they set on the fire, 
and by that means extract the juice. The oil is 
unctuous, and no less useful in lamps than other oil, 
"but the odour is strong and disagreeable " (Little- 
bury's translation). The French translators of 
Pliny identif}- the "kiki" with castor oil, which 
is one of the best vegetable oils for burning, as 
it gives a soft, clear light ; it is still largely used as 
a lamp oil in parts of India. 

Pliny's description of the method of extracting 
the oil with the addition of salt recalls the account 
which Herodotus gives of the festival of The Lighting 
of Lamps at Sais. " They hang up by night a great 
number of lamps, filled with oil and a mixture of 
salt, round every house, the tow swimming on the 
surface." 

The perfumes of the Egyptians were kept in 
alabaster vases, at least they are so represented in 
the sculptures ; and from prehistoric times down to 
the Roman occupation, alabaster perfume vases are 
found in the tombs. Pliny gives what seems to be 
an explanation of this universal custom, when he 
tells us that perfumes keep best in alabaster vessels 
{Unguenta optime servantur in alabastris). 

69. [The names marked with an asterisk * occur in 
the lists of both Ilird and Vth Dynasties. 

The references to Medum are to the tomb of 
Rahotep (Petrie, Medum, -^X. xiii, and Mr. Griffith's 
notes on the inscriptions, p. 38) ; the references to 
M. Maspero are to his paper, " La table d'offrandes 
des tombeaux figyptiens," in the Revue de Vhistoirc 
des Religions, t. xxxv and xxxvi ; the references to 
the altar of Ptahneferu are to Petrie, Kahun, pi. v. 
All other references are given in full. 

Mr. Griffith has also kindly made some sugges- 
tions on the names of the objects in lists \a and b?\ 



The lists of offerings show some curious variations. 
In the lists of the Ilird Dynasty the objects are 
chiefly the possessions of the deceased, vessels of 
stone or metal, furniture, linen, perfumes and cos- 
metics, with a very small proportion of food. In 
the IVth Dynasty the amount of food increases in 
proportion to the other objects, and in the Vth 
Dynasty the lists are made up almost entirely of 
food — cakes, joints of meat, preparations of milk, 
fruit, wine, beer — while the furniture and other 
possessions are shown only in pictures and are not 
mentioned in the lists. I have therefore divided the 
lists into two ; I is of the IlIrd Dynasty, which is 
again subdivided into, {a) the list of Sekerkhabau, and 
(l>) the list of his wife, Hathor-neferhetep ; II is the 
Vth Dynasty list, of which that of User-neter is the 
type. Lists of the Illrd Dynasty vary greatly both 
in names and in arrangement; the Vth D3'nasty lists 
are alike, the variations being in the sequence of the 
names, not in the names themselves. M. Maspero 
has shown that in the Vth and Vlth Dynasties the 
offerings were made during the commemorative 
service for the dead, in regular sequence and to the 
accompaniment of appropriate words. 

70. List \a. Stele of Sekerkhabau. Above the 
central figure : 



Water for washing the hands. 



This 



appears to correspond with the 






rk 



^ seth, 

of the later lists. No. 22 gives the name of the 
ewer and basin. 

*2. In O seneter. Incense. 

=^ M n h<itit- Sacred oils or perfumes. Two 



3- 



vases 
* 



sefeth. A sacred oil or perfume. See 



list 11. 5. 

*5- '"' yrep. Wine. Two jars. 
6. ^ '^=^ O ta nr (?). Large loaf (?). 



D 



O 



ta reteh. Mr. Griffith (Petrie, Kahun, 



p. 41) calls this " a large round cake made of dates." 
Dates were a very important item of food in Egypt. 
In the tomb of Rekhmara (Newberry, Rekhmara, 
pi. xiii) the " house of dates " is mentioned, evi- 
dently the storehouse in which the dried dates or 
date-flour were kept, for Pliny says that in Ethiopia 



LIST OF SEKER-KHA-BAU. 



33 



dates, on being dried, become so friable that they 
yield a flour which is made into bread. 



J^O 



slidt. Bread or cake. Compare the 



shape of this loaf with the slices laid on the table of 
offerings. See list II. 6i. 

*9- ^ yslied. Apricots (?). M. Maspero 

calls these " Lebakh fruit." 

Then come four offerings of which the representa- 
tions are given without the names : 

*io. The khepesh or haunch. 

*ii. 'Y\\& stit ox ytid ]0\\\t. 

*i2. A trussed bird. 

*i3. The ribs of an ox. 

Below the figure comes the main list of offerings, 
consisting chiefly of linen, furniture, and stone or 
pottery vessels with a few names of food. 

14. ,^ neier — linen. There are five varieties, 

numbered respectively 5, 4, 3, 2, i, which, Mr. 
Griffith says, refer to the strands in the thread. The 

word I ^^-^ sesef, which here applies to the 

neter linen, and is determined with a bundle of 
linen, is applied in Medum to the shescr-\in&n, and is 
there determined with a man. A thousand of each 
quality. 

15, 16. < — m. shescr-Xv;\QX\. ^-= «« linen. In quali- 
ties of 100, 9, 8, 7, and 6 strands to the thread. A 
thousand of each quality. 

The lists which follow are arranged under head- 
ings, which sometimes represent the material of 
which the vase or other object is made, sometimes 
the contents of the vase. The sign for a thousand 
follows each object in the list. 

seseha. 



Probably a stone, and 

from the determinative apparently the stone of which 
the butcher's knife-sharpeners were made. But here 
there is a difficulty : the corn-grinders show that it 
must have been stone, but the hut and defy vases are 
of forms which are made in metal, not in stone; and in 
Medum they are coloured blue, the colour for copper. 

17. 8 ^ ^ h^^t. A deep bowl with a rim and 
one handle and a round base. See list \b, 9. 

18. (I defy. A bowl with a rim and two 
handles. 

19. ^0 akliy. Grinding stones for corn. Here 



in Medum in section and there 
Petrie, Royal Tombs ii, pi. 



nemset. Evidently the name of a 



seen in plan, but 
coloured red (cf. 
xxxiii. 25). 

*2o. r-j^h^-j^ \ r 

jar of a special shape. In Medum it is made of 
stone (?) and of gold, and in later times it is of 
pottery. See list II, 22, 23. 

sekhept 



The second heading is 1 p, sekliep 



D 



in list I/'). This is another elusive material, 
which cannot be identified, as in list \b the corn- 
grinders (stone) and the hiit-\2j~,& (metal) occur under 
this heading. It might be supposed that \>o'Ca. seseha 
and sekhep were the names of the contents of the 
vases, like Jiierhet, but the mention of the grinding- 
stones makes this supposition impossible. 

A/WAAA 

21. T^T^T 1^^^^ shanm (?), yak/unu {?). A deep bowl, 

/VWSAA 

with a rim, supported on a stand. 

22. ^^ penn (1). Ewer and basin for washing 

the hands. Vessels of this shape have been found of 
copper and of alabaster (Garstang, Mahasna, pi. 
xx), and at Abydos (Petrie, Royal Tombs i, pi. 
xxxii, 32, and ii, pi. v, 13, 14) stone vases were found 
inscribed, " For washing the hands of the King." 
In Medum the ewer and basin occur twice ; once 
coloured blue, which means copper or perhaps a 
dark stone. 



The third heading is 



' 1 



inerhet. Oil or 



Perfume, and below are the names of five sacred oils, 
all of which are called tep lultet. " Best quality." 

23- \ _-5?i (1 J '^:r# yb, determined with the sign 

of a kid or fawn. This points to its being made 
of some animal substance, such as musk. In Medum 
there are two varieties of j/(J-perfume. 



24. f ^^1 



shest (? 



This has not 



been e.xplained ; it may, however, mean " White." 
There is a word slies which, when applied to cloth is 
translated by Brugsch ( Wtb. 1202) as White ; and the 
white stone, alabaster, is also called shes. In Medum 



In Medum it is 



the name of this perfume is I ^ 

the same name but with the numeral 3 following 
it. This seems to indicate a mixture of aromatic 
substances, " sefer of 5 [ingredients]," and " sefer of 

F 



34 



OFFERINGS. 



3 [ingredients]." The vase in which the perfume 
was contained is the same shape as that alwa3's used 
for the cn-khncvi perfume of the later lists, and which 
recalls the shapes of the Aegean pottery of the 
1st Dynasty found at Abydos (Petrie, Royal Tombs 
ii, pi. liv). 

26. U g^ 1 %=? \ se ur {!) determined with a 

bag, showing that it was a dry preparation, like eye- 
paint, to be moistened when required for use. 

*~7- f ^ - -fi ds/i. Oil of cedar. This appears 

to be one of the principal oils, for, as Herodotus 
tells us, it was largely used in embalming. It is 
found in all lists, and is among the oils mentioned 
in the Book of the Dead. 

The fourth heading is (1 - *^v yda, under 

which come three vases. 

28. ^ X feh res {!), ylut qcina (?). 



36. f: 



set en khct. Seat of wood. 

ha (?) khet. Back (?) of wood. 



Perhaps the back of the chair, for in list \b the 
object appears to be panelled like the chair-backs of 
a later period. 

The eighth heading is Riii tlur. Coloured 

or Painted. 



17- 



cescr. Apparently a stool or table in 



list \b, here decorated with two buckle-amulets and 
the hes-sisn between them. 



I I un 



■es. A head-rest. 



39- 



29. ® f^ (i" ^'st II, © 

30. y^y^ masct. 



kJiesez. 



7-t £f neg. The long-horned o.\. Mr. New- 
berry {Life of Rekhinam, p. 28) gives ncgii as 
" mature ox." 

40. -Jp I S yna. The short-horned ox. 

41. J "2 za. The demoiselle crane. 

*42. I "^ se. A goose. 

43-50. Then follow eight heaps or granaries in- 



These are all tall vases, Nos. 28 and 29 are slightly 
barrel shaped. No. 30 has straight sides widening to 
the top. From the mouth of each fall loops of the scribed with the names of different kinds of grain 
string by which the cover was secured. 

The fifth heading is |f. Mr. Griffith suggests 
the reading "J j^ P — " (?) or ty-yam . I(^). It 

occurs among the names of materials in Medum, 
where the second sign is elaborately drawn, and 
represents a branch with leaves. Here there are 
onlj' two vases under this heading. 

. thd. A large vase with a rim and two 



and fruit. 

Under the figures on each side are the names of 
fifteen kinds of food and liquids, thirteen being the 
same on both sides. 

A 



*5i. 



Iieqet iie:jc!iit. Sweet beer. See list 



II, 67. 

52. y^ 



kit en dii'i (?). 



31- 



*53 



(tubular ?) handles. 

32. slid. A tall cjlindrical vase. 

The sixth- heading is LJ '^ ka/>eli (?). 
3^^. '-' A penq. A bowl on a tall stand. 

34- ^°^ '0' zeuyb (?). A bowl of the same shape 

as the penq. A similar bowl made of copper was 
found at Ab3-dos (Petrie, Abydos ii, pi. xxi. 3). 

The seventh heading is 1 [pT] ^^ -^^-^ sarj. Cedar 

wood (?). The precious wood in the early dynasties 
was ebony, and the next in \alue seems to have 
been cedar. 



p ® ^ sekhept. 
54. J I ^ /;./// ;mc 



Fresh dates (?). 



^^ 



57 



*5 






yn-p. 



Winc. 
1 I nrbes. Sycomore figs ( 



//('//. Dourra grain (cf. PKTRiii;, 



Royal Tombs i, pi. xxxii, 36, for the name written on 
a jar). 



LIST OF HATHOK-NKFER-HETEP. 



35 



*6i. (^ yshcd. Apricots (?) (cf. Petrie, i?(3j/rt/ 

Tombs ii, pi. xxv, i6). 
*62. p I ' 



' r-rr-i 



seshet itas. Green scsliei-zoxn (cf. 
Petrie, Royal Tombs i, pi. xlii, 57, 64). 

*63. I I seshet her.. White seshet-covn (cf. 

Petrie, Royal Tombs i, pi. xlii, 63). 

*64. (on the left) ^ %> ^ agnt. Seed-corn (cf. 
Petrie, Royal Tombs i, pi. xlii, 61). 

65. (on the rif,'ht) (^ vt| yrcp ua. Z7c?-winc. 

71. List \b. Stele of Hathoy-ncfer-hetep. The 
upper part of the list above the seated figure is 
broken away, but enough remains to show that it 
was identical with that of Seker-kha-bau ; the list of 
linens is also the same. As in list \a, each object 
has the sign for Thousand following it. 



merhet.. Oil or 



The first heading is ^"^:x. 
Perfume. 

2. |.=^^=fP[\| se-nr. 

3. I ^=^ P ^ ^^cfer. 

r-n~i n 

4. I ^ s/icst. 

The second heading is [1 

of the following vases are placed under the same 
heading in list la. 

s- 1^\ p4> >-e^ (?)■ 

6. ® 1 1-=^ khesds.':. 



yaa. 



Three 



7. ^ I r L^ III as I- 1. 

8. ^ <J ^ ^ ta uz. 
The third heading is I 



12. T{J|T /www shamiiQ) yakhm!i(}) 



ing 's P [q] "^ 



sac. Cedar- 



The fourth headir 
wood (?). 

13. j| set khet. A seat of wood. 

14. ]) zcscr. A stool or table, not decorated 
as in list Ii?. 

15- 

16. 

17- 

18. 



^^MQ)l-hct. 
' '-' Q Iiotu. A box. 



thcst. A bundle(?)or perhaps a cushion (?). 
^°^ dfrjct. A rectangular box. 



19. 



debcn. A circular box. 



The fifth heading is fD J ^ 
Ebony. 
20. ® ^ 

A/VVvA\ 



hcbcn. 



21. 



khciid. A chair or stool. 
gesa. Mr. Griffith 



suggests 



Sloped (?) footboard (?)." 

22. ^4-4- ^'^ ^^"' 

'^ khert ii. Scribe's writing tablet. 



24. r ^ 2=3 ittJies. Sedan-chair. 
2^. ^ neg. The long-horned ox. 

26. KJ ^^ Q hem in: The great cow. 

27. (J -jH £3 yi"^- The short-horned ox. 
*28. 1 <=» '^ scr. The .w;'-goose. 

29. I za. 



The demoiselle crane. 



D 



Then follow eight objects representing granaries, 
each inscribed with the name of a fruit or grain. 

sck/iept. Three of 30. ^ f'csh. In the royal tombs of the 1st and 



the following vases are placed under sesclia in list \a. 



Ilnd Dynasties at Abydos there were found frag- 
» ments of stone and pottery jars inscribed in ink with 

9-|_p^^'«^- Here the hut vase has two the names of their contents. Among these are two 

handles, and a flat base. See list !«, 17. fragments marked JP which is perhaps the same 

10. /ww\A H ^J\ Q nemset. 

fl 



II. 



7X7//. Grinding stones for corn. 



as the J ""^"^ of the Ilird Dynasty (Petrie, Royal 
Tombs i, pi. xxxii, ^j, and ii, pi. xxv, 15). 



36 



OFFERINGS. 



32. set. Corn. 

ii- Z5 «.?'^'' (')• Seed corn. 
I res'i. Southern corn. 

nd/i. Dourra grain. 



34 



'35 

*36. || ysked. Apricots (?). 

*Z7- "^^^ J ^K deba. Figs. 

*38. AAww J 1 nebes. Sycomore figs (.'). 

Under the figures are six names of food-offerings, 
the same on each side. 



'"39- 



D 



yrep. Wine. 



'^40. [1 yshed. Apricots (?). 



''■41. A^A~v^ 11 nebes. Sycomore figs (?). 
*42. ^^^^J*^ dcba. Figs. 



43.(1 



"44 



•PI 



yart. Grapes. 
sekht itaz. Green seshet-covn. 



72, List II. Lists of the Vth Dynasty. 



M A^AA'\A 

I . AAAAA^ 

° - ' *W\AAA 



rk 



setJi. The libation of water at 



the beginning of the funerary rites. M. Maspero 
says that the libations were made with two different 
waters, that of the South and that of the North. 
In the tomb of User-neter (Pl. XXIII) the whole 
ceremony is shown. 

2. ' ^ ll I ' setet seneter. Burning incense 
(see Pl. XXIII). 

3. ' s=> [ I 1 seth-heb. Festival perfume. A sacred 

oil. M. Maspero says that the basis of this perfume 
was an oil mixed with aromatic substances which 
rendered it thick like ointment. 

4. fi ^ ^ hcknti. A sacred oil. This is one of 

the oils mentioned in the Book of the Dead, and the 
receipt for making it is given in the inscription at 
Edfu (p. 31). 

*5- Y , se/et/i. A sacred oil. Determined (Pl. 
XXIII) with the Mnei/i-vase. M. Maspero thinks 



it was semi-liquid ; not so thin as oil, nor so thick 
as ointment. 



5_ AAAA^ Q gfi khncni. A sacred oil. 
(Pl. XVni)with =^^ the sign of land. 



from the land of 



Determined 

Mr. Griffith 
{Hieroglyphs, p. 39) suggests the translation, " Of 
[the god] Khnem." Possibly 
Khnem" (Elephantine). 

7. Q vU I ci v§\ tiimit. A sacred oil. 



^^•fll: 



^Cfe: 



"^ Imtet cisli. Oil of cedar. 
I ^ hdtet theheimu. Libyan oil. 

=<^=w- v. uaz dref. A bag of green 

eye-paint. This was made of green malachite, ground 
fine. From the determinative, it appears to have 
been applied to the lower eyelid only, and in connec- 
tion with this use of green paint a remark of a well- 
known Egyptian artist (T.^lbot Kelly, Egypt, 
p. 208) is instructive: "A little charcoal or green 
paint rubbed upon the eyelids (especially the lower 
one) is a considerable mitigation of the glare." The 
figure of Hathor-nefer-hotep (Pl. II), however, shows 
a broad horizontal stripe of green paint across the 
face from the eyebrow to the base of the nose. 

'^ sdemt arcf, also written 



II. 

viesdenit. A bag of black eye-paint. After the Old 
Kingdom, black eye-paint made of sulphide of lead 
(galena) superseded the malachite paint, and is used 
to the present day in Egypt, being called by its 
Arabic name koJil. The Latin name, stibinvi, is 
derived from the Egyptian sdeiiit. 



12. ^^ 



v^ 1 1 imkhiii. Two pieces of cloth. 



On Pl. XXI II is a priest bearing the two pieces 
of cloth in his hands. 
O 



13- 



o 



tha qebh (Pl. XVIII), teb in 



O 



the tomb of Anpu-kap. Prof. Erman gives 

as " A drop." This can hardly mean " Two drops 
of water," it is probably a direction to the priest as 
well as the name of the offering: " Water, drop by 
drop." 

*i4. 1 P ^"^ (1 ^ee No 2. 

15. i) v\ '^W^ khaiit. Altar, i.e. an altar covered 

with offerings. In the tomb of Rahotep (Petrie, 
Medtim, pl. xiii) the khaitt is placed among the 



LISTS OF FIFTH DYNASTY. 



■^1 



objects made of alabaster, showing that it repre- 
sents the actual altar and not the offerings upon it. 

1 6. 1 sctcn hetcp. A royal offering. 

Two. M. Maspero shows that the setcn hetep was 
the large flat dish of alabaster which was placed on a 
stand and on which the offerings were piled. On 
Pls. XXI — XXIII there are stands with flat dishes 
containing offerings. On the altar of Ptahneferu 
there are two seten-hetep together, and a third one 



inscribed 



fl^Al 



" Coming with the 



seten-hetep." The dishes or stands are mentioned 
before the offerings of food. 



Offering of the 



I?- 1"^ hetep en usekht. 



forecourt. Also a dish or pla<iue for holding offer- 
ings. Two. The j£'/f«-//e/^y> was offered in the inner 
chamber of the tomb in front of the false door, the 
offering of the forecourt was in the outer chamber 
where, as in the tomb of User-neter, there was some- 
times a niche for that purpose. On the altar of 
Ptahneferu the " offering of the forecourt " is a 
circular dish on which are placed a shens loaf and 
a jar each of wine and beer. 

1 8. 8 '^ ' yf h^^iis- 

ig. „.<rz> O I A slicns and d/nni {}). One of 

each. These two words appear to mean " food 
and drink," without any further or more definite 
meaning. See Nos. 24, 25, 29, 36. 

20. ^ V ^ ^"^' '^ ^°^^ °^ cake. On the altar 

of Ptahneferu it is larger than the slicns-lozi, though 
of nearly the same shape. 

*2i. ^ A 5 — O ta retch. Cake of dates. 

See list \a, 7. 

22. 'ww« ([1^7 W^ ncmset :. 

23. ^AA«v\ \ (] 5? R neinset Iicqt. 
In Medum the word is written ~«~« |i f] ^ ensct. 



•sert. 



H 



the first sign being the determinative of stone (?) ; 
in the same list there is also an enset of zam 
or electrum. It is a vase without handles, wider 
at the shoulder than at the base, and with a rim 
round the mouth. From the fact that it was made 
in electrum it could not have been of any great 
size. On the altar of Ptahneferu and in the list 



of Hapzefa (Griffith, Siut, pi. i), it is called 

^ (1 khticms. 

In the Ilird Dynasty the vase itself was the 
object oftered ; but in the Vth Dynasty, when the 
material of which it was made had degenerated 
into pottery, it is the contents of the jar, and not 
the jar itself, which we find mentioned in the lists. 
For zesert see No. 64, for hekt see No. 67. 



24. 
19. 25 

25- 

sheb. 

*26. 



CZEZl 



slicns an fa (?). Cf. Nos. 



29. 

9 



|IOc^l^O^_^ J^ shens duyu 



en 



w 



silt. According: to Mr. Griffith 



this is the haunch or shoulder shrunk by boiling. 
He also says that the joint was of two kinds, called 
' respectively snt and yiid, one being the foreleg, the 
other the shoulder. It occurs twice in the lists, 
once among the miscellaneous offerings and once 
among the joints. On the altar of Ptahneferu the 
object is the same as the determinative. 

Water. Two vases. Some- 



-/• 



XJ 






mil. 



J 



times written without the hand. M. Maspero says, 
"Two vases, one of which contained water charged 
with the natron of El K3h, five pastilles of the South, 
the other containing water charged with the natron 
of Shit-pit (the Wady Natrun) five pastilles of the 
North. It appears that the officiating priest took 
the pastilles one after the other, and threw them 
into the vase of the South as he recited the formula, 
and repeated the same operation for the vase of the 
North." The altar of Ptahneferu gives one in- 
scribed, and two uninscribed, vases. 

1 1 bed. Natron. Sometimes one, some- 
times two vases. Mr. Griffith says of the deter- 
minative that it is a roll of sacred linen, combined 
with the bag which is the ideogram of toilet powders, 
and that the substance contained in the bag is 
probably natron. In reference to the use of natron, 
M. Maspero observes that balls of it put in a water 
jar clarify the liquid at once. This is probably the 
reason why it always occurs immediately after water 
in the lists. On the altar of Ptahneferu there is 
only one vase of bed. 

29. 5 '^^^ slietis duy r (?). One of each. 
(IT^ ^>*^ Another variant of Nos. 



19. 24, 

This is the beginning of a list 



25- 

of bread and cakes. 



38. 



OFFERINGS. 



^0. '=^ 



\ 



•31. e 



c t/tt. See No. 20. 

ta retell. See No. 21. 




32. X s=3 ^ hethn. Bread or cake. Two. On 

the altar of Ptahneferu, it is a tall upright loaf, like 
the shens in shape. 

23. r^^^j^ <^ _g^ nelicrii. Another kind of cake, 
in shape like the JietJiu and sliens on the altar of 
Ptahneferu. Two. 

34- 



or V\ dcptoxdepa. Bread or cake. 

Four. On Ptahneferu"s altar it is shown as a tall, 
narrow loaf, so narrow for its height as to be badly 
balanced, and therefore is laid on its side. On the 
altar it occurs with the sekhai joint of meat. 
D "^ 
— O 



On Ptahneferu's altar an object shaped something 

like the sole of a foot is called A X 1. 

41. (| '^'^0#''^=^ J'^^rt'^//;aX'(?). Bread or 

cake. Four. M. Maspero translates this as " Le 
gateau de derriere le double." 



42 



^ pant. Bread or cake. Four. 

.\ circular cake on which is the print of the four 
fingers of the hand. There are three varieties of 
it on the altar of Ptahneferu. 

C3a 







ta asher. Roasted bread. 



35- 



( QyS pesenox persen. Bread" 

or cake. Four. A circular cake, occurring with 
wine, beer, and shens cake on the altar of Ptahne- 
feru. The size of the cake can be estimated from 
the fact that in the time of Rameses II, ttV of 

a sa f'^'^^ of barley was allowed for one cake 

(DlJMiCHEN, A.Z. 1870, p. 42). Dioscorides gives 
as the Egyptian name of the divine bread ambrosia, 
fiepaim, which Lauth derives from this word perseti. 
(Lauth, A.Z. 1868, p. 92). 

3^- 9 P ^^'^"^- I'our. Cf. Nos. ig, 24, 25, 
29. 

37. ^ -^h =^^^ ta-ynii ta. Bread of that which is 

in the ground (?). Four. Perhaps a kind of bread 
made from the roots of plants. 

38. ^ '^-=^- VN /t//(?«y«, sometimes written ^^^«?<. 

Cake or bread. Four. On the altar of Ptahneferu 
they are flat and oval. They were probablj' small, 
as in the inscriptions of Siut, Hapzefa requires two 
hundred of them from each priest in his list of 
offerings (Griffith, Siut, pi. vii). 



43- 

Four. From the name this must be a kind of 
biscuit or toast, i.e. a doubly cooked bread. Ptahne- 
feru's altar shows it of the same curious shape as 
the qemliu-qeiiia. 

44. YYj Iieziu. Onions. Four baskets. In the 

list of Ateta (Pl. XVIII) the word is spelt out. 
The fondness of the Egyptian for onions was almost 
proverbial ; even so late as the Christian era we find 
St. Apollonius saying that the Egyptians give the 
name of god to the onion, and Herodotus says that 
so early as the time of Khufu the workmen lived 
upon bread, radishes, and onions. 

*45. r-iir-i !i»,c^ khcpesJi. Fore-leg. This seems 

to have been the most important joint of the sacrificial 
animal. In all representations of offerings the fore- 
most priest carries a fore-leg, generally on his 
shoulder. In lists the kkcpesh is followed by the 
names of other joints and edible parts of the animal. 

*46. '2^ c^3^ y^'^- See No. 26. 

47. —*— ( I sekhcn. Fore-part (?) of an ani- 

mal. On the altar of Ptahneferu the sekJien is of 
a nondescript shape, and is placed with other joints 
and dept cakes. 

See No. 26. 

D 



*a1^ 



39. I J 2.1 % hebneunn. Bread or cake. *49. H ^ | ^=v, ^ secptch spcr. Ribs. Four, 



Four. From the determinatives on Pl. XVIII they 
appear to be small round cakes. 

4°- ^ ^^ 8 V ^1 Qemlni-qeiiia. Bread or cake. 



On the altar of Ptahneferu it is represented as four 

ribs with a piece of the skin (?) still attached. 

r~w~i 
50- 



ashcrt. Roast (meat). Ptahneferu 



Four. This word is spelt in many ways, but this 
form seems to be the most complete. Prof. Erman, 
in his Glossary, suggests that it is a foreign word. 



gives two baskets filled with oval pieces of meat, 
and in the tomb of User-neter (Pl. XXIII) there is 
a basket filled with various joints, which are separated 



LISTS OF FIFTH DYNASTY. 



39 



from similar joints in other parts of the piles of 
offerings, probably because they had been specially 
prepared. 

In the tomb of 



51. y luyst. Kidneys (?) 

Ptahshepses (Pls. XXIX, XXX), this and the three 
following meats are determined with a fire sign, as if 
to imply that the}- were cooked. 

52. 4-4- ^^^ nenslieiii. Spleen. In Coptic rtoeity. 
On the altar of Ptahneferu it is spelt i-^. 



53- 



J Jia, Limb. The representation on 



Ptahneferu's altar is not sufficiently definite to 
enable one to identify the special part of the animal. 

54. [1 p ~vww '=^ yf en Iidt. Flesh of the fore- 
part. 

55. <=> ^3' re, A kind of goose ; in Coptic po. 
This is the first of a list of five birds which are 
represented almost exactly alike on the altar of 
Ptahneferu. In the tomb of User-neter (Pls. XXI — 
XXIII) there are several different kinds of birds 
represented, both among the piles of offerings and 
also carried by attendants. 



56. ji-^ tlierp. A kind of goose. 

57. ^I^ set. A duck (sheldrake ?). 

*58. n <=> ^3- scr. Teal. Mr. Griffith {Hiero- 
glyphs, p. 23) says of these two birds, "The 
domesticated duck named which, like the small 

duck, is never absent from scenes of the poultry 

farm, has the two long central tail-feathers of the 
pintail." On the altar of Ptahneferu the ser duck is 
represented as much smaller than the other birds. 



50. 
60. g 



^^ incntiut. Pigeon. 

ta srf. Bread or cake. On the 

altar of Ptahneferu a large, flat, circular cake. 

*6i. r\ shdt. Bread or cake. Two. On 

the altar of Ptahneferu this is an upright cake like 
the shens loaf In the tomb of Rekhmara (New- 
berry, Reklimara, pi. xiii) is a scene of bakers 
"cooking shdt." The "slaves of the house of 
dates " are sifting flour, other servants are moulding 
the loaves, and others again are engaged in the 



actual cooking. A large jar of honey, placed con- 
spicuously among the men, shows that honey was 
among the ingredients, and that the shdt was 
therefore a sweet cake, made of date flour. 



62. 



measures. 



baa 



nepat. Seed corn (?). Two 



63. 



^ 006 



mesiic. It is not clear what 



this is, as, on the altar of Ptahneferu, only a covered 
basket is seen inscribed uiestit. 

64. W^ S ^'cscrt. Butter or cheese; M. Mas- 

pero suggests cream [T.S.B.A. v. 557). In Coptic 
it is CA-ipe. On the altar of Ptahneferu there are 
two vessels of zesert, one is the tall jiemset vase, 
the other the bowl, which is the determinative of 
the hin-measure. 

1 



W^ 



^-^ 



zesert Vast. Cheese of Thebes. 



I take this to mean ewe's-milk cheese, for Diodorus 
says (ii, 3) : "The sheep . . . gives milk and cheese 
in abundance," and Thebes is known to have been 
a place where sheep were held sacred. 

66. § ^ ^ l\ P ^ ^^eqt khenemset. 

Hepzefa's list (Griffith, SiiU, pi. i.) gives the 

A 



reading of this : 



8 



\^ 



khenemset net 



hcqt. h. kheiieuiset ]2Lr oiheev. See No. 23. 

*67. ft heqt. Beer. Two vases. 

Beer is of very ancient origin, and its invention 
was ascribed by the Egyptians to Osiris. Diodorus 
says : " If he (Osiris) found any territory unsuitable 
for the vine, he caused the people to make beer, 
a drink composed of barley and water, not much 
inferior in taste, savour, and strength to wine." 
(Diod. i, 3). In another place he says that it is 
called Zythos. There were several kinds of beer, 
of which, according to M. Maspero, the black beer 
was considered the best. For an account of the 
method of making beer in Egypt, see Borchardt, 
A.Z., 1897, 128. 

this is generally translated 



^68. \\® ^ sekliept, 



Cucumbers (?). Two measures. This appears to 
be either a liquid expressed from fruit, or a very 
juicy fruit. Among the offerings (Pl. IX) carried 
by the farm-women are large melons (?) striped with 
green, which I would suggest as being the sekhept. 



40 



HIEROGLYPHS. 



On the altar of Ptahneferu there are two bowls of bird is sometimes written with a hoe in its claws 



sekhept. 



-^ 



Mr. Griffith (Beni Hasan iii, p. 30) gives 



^9- © ^'/ P'^^'"'- ^^^- ^''''^''^- Two baskets. ^^^^^^^ ^^ ,. ^^^^^ ^^^^ „ . ^j_ Maspero suggests 

The determinative in User-neter (Pl. XXIII) is " Lentils." (Cf. Petrie, Royal Tombs i, pi. xlii, 

three grains, but I think they are intended for the 64.) 

three dots of the plural. Brugsch ( Worth. 503) calls *^8_ " n R ^^.^w. Sycomore figs. Two baskets, 

this: "Split bread," i.e. "slices." Mr. Griffith ^ , ^ "^ J , ^, , . ,.. _ ,, 

has proposed (Petrie, Dendereh, p. 42) to see in the In the tomb of Rekhmara (Newberry, Rekhviara, 

upright objects on the tables of offerings, not palm- pl- v) ;/.-^.^-fruit is brought as tribute packed in 

leaves but slices of bread. On studying the shapes skins ; and in the tombs of the kings of the 1st and 

of these objects in the earliest examples (Pes. I and Und Dynasties at Abydos (Petrie, Royal Tombs 

II and Mcdum, pl. xiii) it is seen that they are the ii, PP- 36, 38) quantities of dried sycomore tigs 

sh'ape of half a loaf, and the colour is either black or were found which had been strung together, having 

yellow. The table then was covered with slices of the hole visible in the middle. 

79. /I J] I i'(? nebes. Bread or loaf of sycomore 

'^"y'^ figs. Two baskets. 



71. 



72. 



bread on which the offerings were piled. 

70. [^ S;a -5- p ^^ or c:^ S;a # P 
shescr. Two. In the list of Khnumhotep the arrow 
is replaced by the bow □ . 

^^^■W yyep. Wine. Two measures. 

There were five kinds of wine offered in the tombs, 

of which the names were, i- tj □ ' "• J '-^^' 

3. (1^^,4.^:0, 5.^- AtSiut(GRiE- 

FiTH, Siut, pl. i) the first name is [| "^ °^ yrep 

meh. Northern wine. In the lists, however, the 
names are not often given, but the word Wine is 
repeated five times. According to M. Maspero, 
two kinds of wine were always offered ; the black, 
representing the right Eye of Horus, the white 
representing the left Eye of Horus ; the white wine 
was considered the best. 

*73. (|'^^^ yshcd, Apricots (?). Two baskets. 

*74. [1 I sckJiet hcz. White sckhct-zQxn. Two 

baskets. 

*75- I -^^^'^""^ "'^•^- Green se/c/wi-covn. Two 

baskets. 

*76. 



*So. ^ 
baskets. 
81. ^ 

82. 



uc7h. Durrah grain. Two 



k/u-l nebt nezemt. All sweet thinsjs. 



7rnp2it neb. All growing things. In 

the tomb of Akhethotep (vol. ii) all the offerings 
brought in procession by the priests are called renpiit. 



83. 



fer-^ 



000 



^ 



licnk. Offerings. 



«^--fl 



hat iidlm. The chief [things] 
setep. The choice pieces [of oxen and 



of the altar. 

birds]. 

^ seth (?), Libation. 

scnetcr. Incense. 
88. 5 I shcs. Linen. 
80. ^^^ ® 1 I vienkhet. Cloth 



86. |^^£. 
*S7. ^ P 



90. 



ffi 



V^'''' dgu. Mr. Griffith {Bcni Hasan 

iii, p. 30) gives yt dget as " Yellow corn." Two 
baskets. 



77- 



ban-set (?). Two baskets. The 



incrhet. Ointment. 
CHAPTER XIV. 

HIEROGLYPHS. 



73. Pls.XXXVII-XL. The hieroglyphs in these 
plates are either rare, peculiar, or of unusually good 
and detailed forms. They are taken from five tombs, 



LIVING CREATURES. 



41 



Seker-kha-bau, Ka-em-hest, Ptahhetep II, User- 
neter, and Ptahshepses II (abbreviated to S, K, 
P, U, and PS). I am indebted to Mr. Griffith's 
writings on this subject for much of the information 
given here. 

1. A woman suckling a child, det. of the word 
mendt, "Nurse" (Pl. X, in farm name). The 
woman wears a long wig, one braid of which falls 
in front of the shoulder, and her dress has one 
shoulder-strap. No colour. 

2. A woman kneeling and offering a tray on 
which are two A^'J-vases and an Wrtj-sceptre (Pls. 
XXIX, XXX, in list of titles). A very rare sign. 
The woman wears a dress with one shoulder-strap, 
a long wig which falls only down the back, and a 
necklace. The position of the necklace and wig 
give a somewhat deformed appearance to the figure. 
No colour. 

3. A bearded man seated, wearing a fillet round 
his head and an ostrich feather, probably fastened 
into the fillet and standing straight up from his 
head (Pl. I, in list of titles). He is swathed in a 
garment which completely covers him so that only 
his head and one hand appear ; the ends of the 
garment are gathered together and thrown over one 
shoulder, and are seen at the back of the neck. 
He holds in his hand two objects, somewhat like 
drumsticks in shape. An unique sign. No colour. 

4. Head, seen in profile, wearing a short curled 
wig and a short horizontally-striped beard. Sign for 
tepy, "First" (Pl. VIII, in list of titles). The colours 
are invariably the same at all periods (Pl. XLI). 

5. Head seen full-face ; sign for her, " Upon " 
(Pl. VIII, in list of titles). The ears and eyebrows 
are greatly exaggerated, the hair looks like a skull- 
cap, but from the colour, black, it is undoubtedly 
hair. The beard is very wide, and is marked with 
horizontal bands (Pl. XLI for colour). 

^ 6. Two hands holding a nekhebt wand, the arms 
continued to the shoulder. Sign for zeser, " Sacred " 
(Pl. I, in list of titles). The right hand grasps the 
wand, but the left hand is merely closed, and the 
wand passes behind it, though the artist's intention 
was to show the wand grasped in both hands. The 
modelling on this sign is fine and delicate, all the 
muscles being indicated (Pl. XLI for colours). 

7. Two upraised hands and arms joined at the 
shoulder. Sign for ka (Pl. Ill, i in name). Like 
all the hieroglyphs in the tomb of Ka-em-hest, the 
drawing and modelling are exquisite (Pl. XLI for 
colour). 



8. An outstretched hand holding a small globular 
vase, the arm cut off just above the elbow. Det. of 
a festival (Pl. VIII, list of festivals; Pl. XLI for 
colours). 

9. Conventional form of a heart, the markings 
and " wings" representing the great blood vessels. 
Word sign for yl>, " Heart " (Pl. VIII), also often 
used as det. of " /nUi, "Heart" (Pl. XLI for 
colour). 

10. Two feet with legs as far as the knee. Det. 
of words of motion (Pl. XX). The feet are shown 
with the left foot slightly raised at the heel in the 
act of passing the other foot ; in this position the 
knees, when viewed sideways, would be together. 

74. II, 12. An owl, Strix flauiiiiea. Sign for the 
letter M (Pls. Ill, VIII). The markings on the 
head are conventional even at this early date ; and 
even in the tomb of Ka-em-hest, the beauty of the 
sign lies, not in truth to nature, but in the delicacy 
of the detail (Pl. XLII for colour). 

13. The small vulture, Neophron percnopterns. 
Sign for the letter alcph (Pl. VIII). On Pl. I in 
the short lists of offerings there is a variant of this 
sign, where the thin hairs on the head are shown as 
a sort of crest (Pl. XLII for colours). 

14. A quail chicken. Sign for the letter W. 
(Pl. VIII). In this instance the tiny wing with the 
little pinion feathers is clearly shown (Pl. XLII for 
colours). 

15. 16. A crested plover, Vancllus cristatus. Sign 
for rekhyt, " Mankind " (Pls. VIII, XX, in lists of 
titles). In 16 an attempt has been made to show 
the markings on the head and breast (Pl. XLII for 
colours). 

17. A flying duck, Dafila acuta. Sign for the 
syllable Pa (Pl. X, in farm name ; Pl. XLII for 
colours). 

18. The large vulture with naked neck and throat. 
Sign for the syllable ;;/«/ (Pl. VIII in list of titles). 
The repulsive appearance of the folds of skin on the 
neck is well shown in an otherwise greatly conven- 
tionalized representation (Pl. XLII for colours). 

ig, 20. A swallow (?). ig. Sign for nezes, 
" Small "(Pl. I). There are two birds represented 
in the hieroglyphs which greatly resemble each other, 
but which have totally opposite meanings, one 
means Little, the other Great ; the chief difference 
in the drawing is in the shape of the tail ; the iir, 
" Great," bird (wagtail) has a forked tail (20), the 
nezes bird has a round tail (Pl. XLII for colour). 

G 



42 



HIEROGLYPHS, 



21. Three cranes (?) with a tuft where the head 
joins the neck. Sign for byu, " Fame," or usually 
"Spirits " (Pl. I in name). In later times this bird 
is represented with the tuft on the breast instead of 
on the neck (Pl. XLII for colours). 

22. Fledgling swallowing a worm. Sign for that, 
"Vizier" (Pl. VIII, in list of titles). The wing 
and tail feathers are carefully drawn, the lines on 
the body are possibly intended to indicate the 
muscles and bones seen on the unfledged bird 
(Pl. XLII for colour). 

23. Hawk perched on a semi-circular object from 
which hang two streamers ; an ostrich feather in 
front. Sign for Yinentet, "The west" (Pl. VIII in 
formula for the dead ; Pl. XLII for colours). 

24. An unknown quadruped, the symbol of the 
god Set (Pl. I in list of titles). This is the earliest 
detailed representation of the animal, which is 
known in ruder form from pre-dynastic times. The 
characteristics of the creature — the long drooping 
nose, the square ears, and the forked tail — are con- 
tinued till a late period, but it is impossible to 
identify the animal from the sculptures. It is either 
a fabulous animal, or a highly conventionalized 
representation of some species of dog. No colour. 

25. A lion couchant. Sign for rii (Pl. Ill in list 
of titles). This is the most beautiful of all the fine 
hieroglyphs in the inscription of Ka-em-hest. No 
colour. 

26. A jackal walking. Sign for sab, " Judge " 
(Pls. VIII, IX, in list of titles). In early tombs at 
Saqqara the jackal's tail is always immensely long 
and passes either over or under the boundary lines 
of the inscriptions (Pl. XLI for colour). 

27. A jackal couchant with an ostrich feather on 
his back. Sign for /i ;//«," The god Anubis." The 
reason for the feather is not explained, it occurs also 
in the inscription of Khnum-hetep at Beni Hasan 
(Griffith, Bcni Hasan i, pl. xxvi), but it does not 
appear, in either instance, to make any difference in 
the meaning (Pl. XLI for colour). Cf. Petrie, 
Royal Tombs, pl. .xxix, 86. 

28. A little quadruped called Hcthes (Pl. I in 
name). Prof. Sethe translates it as a rat or a mouse, 
in the Cairo Museum it is translated " Hyaena ; " 
I think that it is a mongoose or ichneumon, called 
nims by the Arabs ; they are not at all uncommon 
at Saqqara, and being fearless, friendly little animals 
are easily tamed, and would probably be well-known 
to the Egyptians of the Old Kingdom. No colour. 

29. A hare. Sign for the syllable Un (Pl. XI in 



the lo\vest register). The desert hare is not very 
common now, but was probably more so in early 
times. The ears are always represented as being 
disproportionately long (Pl. XLI for colour). 

30. The fore part of a lion with a long heavy 
mane. Sign for the syllable ha (Pls. VIII, IX, and 
Pl. XLI for colours) 

31. A fish. Sign for the syllable (inz (Pls. XX, 
XXI, XXIII, XXIV in list of titles). A commonly 
represented fish in the hieroglyphs though rather rare 
in reality (Pl. XLII for colours). 

32. A fish, called bolie by the Arabs. Sign for the 
syllable yn (Pl. XII in farm name). A common 
fish in the Nile, and the best for eating. There is 
also a mythological fish called ynt mentioned in 
hymns to the Sun in the Book of the Dead, where it 
is said to pilot the boat of the Sun. No colour. 

33. A large hornet. Sign for byfl, " King of 
Lower Egypt." (Pl. VIII in list of titles.) A very 
detailed representation, the stripes on the body 
being clearly shown ; it is not clear what is intended 
by the marks on the wings. No colour. 

75. 34. A compound sign, consisting of the plan 
of a house with the elevation of one side, within the 
enclosure a wide bowl called »sek/i with the semi- 
circular sign for the letter T, here used as the 
feminine ending. The whole sign probably reads 
het nsekJit, "The wide house," which Prof Sethe 
takes to mean the palace (Pl. XX). The enclosing 
wall is ornamented with pilasters as in the fortress 
palaces of the Old Kingdom (see ground plan of 
Shuneh fort, Ayrton, Abydos iii, pls. vi-viii, p. 2, 
and OuiBELL, Hicrakonpolis ii, p. 20). The eleva- 
tion shows that the wall was decorated along the 
top with the klieker ornament ; about the middle are 
two sacred eyes and between them the sign hez 
" White " ; these are probably charms painted on 
the wall to prevent the entrance of evil into the 
house : below are straight lines representing bands 
of colour (see description of Middle Fort, Ayrton, 
Abydos iii, p. 3). The usck/i bowl and the T are 
enclosed merely for the sake of making a compact 
group (see Pl. XLI 1 1 for colours). 

35. A compound sign, consisting of the ground- 
plan of a building enclosing the sign for natron. 
lleibedil) "House of Natron" (Pl. Ill in list of 
titles). In the corner of the enclosing walls there 
is a small rectangle which may be the plan of the 
house standing in the corner of an immense court- 
yard (Ayrton, Abydos iii, p. 2), or possibly the gate 



INANIMATE OBJECTS. 



43 



leading into the building. The sign for natron 
consists of the roll of cloth (?), which stands usually 
for Neter, terminating in a little bag with ends. No 
colour. 

36. Front elevation of a shrine. Sign for the 
sjllable sell (Pl. Ill in list of titles). Another 
shrine of the same kind is shown in Nos. 43 and 44 
(Pl. I in list of titles). Nos. 36 and 44 show the 
front elevation of the shrine, with the door through 
which the worshippers could see the figure of the 
god. No. 43 gives a side view of the same building, 
and both show that the structure was of light 
materials, the sides being probably of trellis or 
basket work. In the tomb of Imery at Gizeh (L. D., 
ii, ^i^b) carpenters are making a similar shrine which 
is on runners, showing that it was intended to be 
taken from place to place (Pl. XLIII for colour). 

37. A building supported by columns. Sign for 
the word kha, " Palace " (Pl. XXII). The sign is 
remarkable on account of the Proto-Doric columns, 
here evidently made of wood. No colour. 

38. 39. Front elevation of a sarcophagus, showing 
the fagade of false doors in imitation of a mastaba. 
Det. of qrest, " Burial " (Pls. Ill, VTII in formula 
for the dead). No colour. 

40. A dome-shaped building with one door (?). 
Det. of yst, which Prof. Sethe translates as 
"Boundary House" (Pl. X in farm name). No 
colour. 

41. A compound sign, consisting of the sign per, 
" A house," and the mace, which reads hec, " White." 
The two signs together are read per hes, " The White 
House" (Pl. VIII in list of titles). In many 
instances the sign is reduplicated and must then be 
read in the dual, when, according to Prof Sethe, it 
means the administration of finance, in the title iHer 
peruy hez (Pls. XLIII, XLV for colours). 

42. The plan of a house surmounted by six uraei. 
Sign (according to Prof. Sethe) for sebakh (?) ty, and 
when compounded with sab it means " Chief Judge" 
(Pl. VIII). A wooden structure with uraei along 
the top is now in the Museum of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland in Edinburgh (Rhind, 
Thebes, its Tombs and their Tenants, frontispiece). 
It is a canopy for a bier and is in the form of a 
building with pillars, while along the top is a 
chevaux de frise of uraei (Pl. XLIII for colours). 

43. 44. A shrine seen from the side and from 
the front. Sign for seh{T) (Pl. I in list of titles). 
The shrine is evidently a temporary erection 
of light trellis-work, easily moved from place to 



place. In 43 a little porch is indicated, and at the 
base the three objects are perhaps steps leading up 
to the doorway (Pl. XLIII for colour). 

45. A compound sign, consisting of a shrine or 
canopy and an object which appears to be a basket. 
Sign for heb, "Festival" (Pl. VIII in list of 
festivals). The canopy is a light erection, probably 
of reeds bound together, supported on a central pole. 
The semi-circular object below almost invariably 
has a diamond-shaped mark in the centre, which 
gives it the effect of basket work. (Pl. XLIII for 
colour). 

46. A building. Det. of granary (Pl. VIII in list 
of titles). This is evidently the conventional repre- 
sentation of the circular mud-brick granaries which 
are one of the features of harvest scenes (Pl. XI). 
In the short lists of offerings on the stele of Seker- 
kh:i-bau and his wife (Pls. I and II) almost every 
object is determined with this sign (Pl. XLIII for 
colour). 

47. A road bordered by trees (grass ?) with a canal 
on each side. Sign for nat, " Road " (Pl. XX in 
formula for the dead, Pl. XLIII for colour). 

48. Flowering papyrus plant growing out of a 
mass of mud and water. Sign for meJi, " North," 
(Pl. I in list of titles). No colour. 

49- Flowering rush growing out of water. Sign 
for qeind, "South" (Pl. I in list of titles). It is 
remarkable that the plants which typify the North 
and the South should be marsh plants (Pl. XLII for 
colour). 

50. The same as 49, with the addition of the 
numeral 10 (Pl. XX in list of titles, Pl. XLII for 
colour). 

51- A compound sign, consisting apparently of the 
two upright feathers on a crescent ; the lower part 
seems to represent a flower, but the whole sign is so 
highly conventionalized that its true meaning is lost 
even at this early period (Pl. I in list of titles). 
No colour. 

52. An unknown sign. Det. of the Jrt'^-festival 
(Pl. VIII in list of festivals). No colour. 

53. The rising sun (?). Sign for kha, " To appear, 
to be crowned," &c. (Pl. I in name). The colour- 
ing of this sign makes it more than probable that 
this is an attempt to represent the rainbow. In the 
tomb of Ptahshepses I (Pl. XXVII) the colours are 
in bands, green, blue, and red, divided by white 
lines ; the bands are concentric like a rainbow, not 
radiating like the rays of the sun. 

54. 60. A row of four pots. Sign for khent, " In 



44 



HIEROGLYPHS. 



front of" (Pls. I and XX in list of titles', Pl. XLIV 
for colour). 

55. Two wine jars. Det. of wine (Pl. I in lists 
of offerings). The jars are covered with basket- 
work, either to cool the wine or to prevent the jars 
from breaking. The first jar has a double stopper, 
the second a single stopper. Wine is almost 
invariabK' determined by two jars (except when the 
vine sign is used), in later times they are apparently 
fastened together (Pl. XLIV for colour). 

56-59. Jars of various shapes. Det. of water and 
vases (Pl. I in list of offerings, Pl. XLIV for 
colour). 

61. Basket of fruit. Det. o( js/icd-hmt (Pl. I in 
list of offerings). No colour. 

62. Globular vase. Sign for the syllable nu (Pl. I 
in list of titles, Pl. XLIV for coleur). 

63. Flint knife (Pl. I in list of titles). The 
handle and the serration of the edge of the blade are 
clearly indicated. No colour. 

64. Adze (Pl. I in list of titles). The blade of 
flint or metal is securely lashed to the wooden 
handle. No colour. 

65. A kind of drill, sign for he7n(, "craftsman" 
(Pl. I in list of titles). The stones which form the 
weight are tied to the upright by ropes ; a later 
example (Pl. XXVI) shows the stones in a network. 
In an unpublished tomb at G\zeh there is a fine 
example of the use of this tool, which is used by a 
man standing upright to drill the hollow of a large 
stone vase. No colour. 

66. A crook. Sign for fwtjn, "To rule" (Pl. I in 
list of titles). No colour. 

67. An unknown object (Pl. I in list of titles). 
No colour. 

68. 6g. A hank of flax or other fibre twisted 
tightly together. Sign for the letter H (Pls. 
VIII-XII). The ends of the hank are tied to pre- 
vent the entangling of the strands. There is a fine 
example in the unpublished tomb of Ptah-nefer-sem 
at Saqqara, where the twisted hank of fibre is laid 
on a basket (Pl. XLIV for colour). 

70. A loop of rope. Sign for the syllable [/a 
(Pls. VIII, XX). It is probably intended to 
represent a knot, but the Egyptians seemed to have 
a difficulty in drawing knots. On Pl. XI the knots 
by which the butchers' whet-stones are fastened to 
their girdles, though carefully drawn, are not knots 
at all, but merely an ingenious arrangement of loops 
which would not hold firm in reality (Pl. XLIV for 
colour). 



71. A ball of string wound on a stick. Sign for 
^r, " command " (Pl. XLIV for colour). 

72. A bead necklace with pendant beads and with 
wide ribbons to tie. Sign for nu3, " gold " (Pl. VIII 
in list of titles). The strings of beads are caught up 
at each end into a circular disk ; in later times the 
plain disk was replaced by a hawk, or lion, head. 
No colour. 

73. A bead necklace to which is attached a 
cylinder seal (cf. Petkie, Hfec/um), sign {or sesa/j' (?), 
"seal-bearer" (?), (Pl. VIII in hst of titles ; Pl. 
XLV for colour). 

74. A hatchet. Reading doubtful (Pl. Ill in list 
of titles). The use of this tool is shown in the tomb 
of Khunes at Sauiet el Meitin (L. D. ii, 108) where 
men are cutting down trees and smoothing the 
baulks of timber with hatchets of this shape. In the 
tomb of Aba (D.wies, Dezr el Gebraivi i, pl. xvi) a 
boat-builder is using two hatchets, one in each hand. 
No colour. 

75. 76. A hoe made of wood and tied with rope. 
Sign for mer, " Love " (Pls. Ill and VIII). Like all 
the hieroglyphs in the tomb of Ka-em-hest this sign 
is remarkable for its delicacy and beauty of finish 
(Pl. XLV for colour). 

yy, 78. .A. furnace. Sign for the syllable ia 
(Pls. VIII and XX in lists of titles, Pl. XLIII 
for colour). 

79. A conjoined wreath of flowers. Sign for the 
god Min (Pl. VIII in list of festivals). This speci- 
men is highly conventionalized, but prehistoric 
examples (Petkie, Koptos, pl. iii, Rand.^ll-Maciver, 
El Auirah, pl. viii, 2) show the flowers placed one 
inside the other like the jasmine chains of India. 
No colour. 

80. A door-bolt. Sign for the letter S (Pl. VIII 
in list of festivals). See P.S.B.A., i8gg, p. 286, for a 
specimen in wood, and Caulfeild, Temple of the 
Kings, pl. xvii, 4, for one in use (Pl. XLIII for 
colour). 

81. Unidentified object. Sign for zcha (Pl. XII 
in farm name, Pl. XLIV for colour). 

82. Unidentified object. Det. of sacred oil (Pl. 
XXIX in list of oils, Pl. XLV for colours). 

83. Pool of water. Sign for the letter 5// (Pl. VIII 
in list of titles). In later periods the carefully- 
delineated ripples of water are omitted entirely, and 
the sign appears as a blank rectangle (Pl. XLIII for 
colour). 

84. Unidentified object. Det. of a festival (Pl. 
VIII in list of festivals). It is used as the det. of the 



COLOURS OF HIEROGLYPHS. 



45 



festivals of Thoth and Uag only, combined with the 
hand holding a vase (8), and three globular vases. 
Mr. Griffith supposes it to be a table covered with a 
cloth (Davies, Ptahhetcp i, p. ■3,']). I know no similar 
object in the sculptures which is used as a table, but 
in the tomb of Sekhemka, at Gizeh (L. D. ii, 89) a 
man is bringing one on his shoulder, and on a 
wooden panel of the O. K. in the Cairo Museum, 
a woman is carrying one on her head. In the 
latter instance the object is fluted vertically. No 
colour. 

85. A bundle of papyrus rolls (?) tied at the top 
and bottom and in the middle. Sign for the syllable 
ys (Pl. VIII in list of titles). No colour. 

86. A girdle (?) tied in a bow with long ends. 
Sign for dnkh, " Life " (Pl. IX). The ends of the 
bow appear to be knotted in two wide double 
loops, possibly to keep them in position (Pl. XLV 
for colour). 

87. A strip of cloth wound on a stick with one end 
loose. Sign for neter, " God " (Pl. XX in name). 
It was formerly supposed to be an axe, and even the 
Egyptians appear to have considered it so, and made 
amulets of that shape, in which all idea of cloth was 
lost (see jeweller}' of Aahhetep, Petrie, History ii, 
fig. 6). In early examples the loose end of cloth — ■ 
the head of the axe — was divided into two (Petrie, 
Royal Tombs ii, pl. viii, 13 ; xxiv, 211 ; Garstang, 
Mahasna, pis. viii-x). Originally, it was used only as 
the word for "god," later it became the det. for 
names of gods (Pl. XLV for colour). 

88. A tusk (?) bound with cords. Sign for the 
word ybek (Pl. I in list of titles). No colour. 

89. Circular enclosure containing an irregular 
cross. Sign for net, " City " (Pls. IX, X, XII in farm 
names). It is generally taken to be the plan of a 
town or village with cross roads running through it 
and with circular enclosing walls (Pl. XLIII for 
colour). 

90-92. Unidentified object. Sign for ymakh, 
"Worthy" (Pls. VIII, XXXI). No satisfactory 
explanation of this sign has been found yet. Mr. 
Griffith supposes it to be a bag drawn together by a 
string, the folds or pleats being indicated by the lines. 
The colour is certainly that used for cloth, but the 
same colour is also used for wood, and this sign has 
more the appearance of a wooden, than of a woven, 
object (Pl. XLIV for colour). 

93. Scribe's writing apparatus. Sign for sesli, 
" Scribe " (Pl. VIII in list of titles). It represents 
the pen-case ending in a lotus blossom, a small 



water-pot, and a palette with two saucers, all tied 
together with cords. In the tomb of Userneter 
(Pl. XX), the top of the pen-case is more elaborate, 
and the little saucers are hollow. In the tomb of 
Ptahhetep II (Pl. XV, 4), each saucer is divided 
into black and white, or red and white (Pl. XLIV 
for colour). 

94. Draught-board with men. Sign for the syllable 
j/ien (Pl. X in farm name). The draught-board is of 
the typical form, spaces 10 x 3, the men are distin- 
guished by having some plain and some with a knob 
on the top. Men of both forms are found in early 
tombs (Petrie, R. T. ii, p. xxxv. 5, 6, p. 36) made 
of ivory and blue glaze (Pl. XLIV for colour). 

95. A mound (?) with herbage (?). Sign iox yat, 
" Fields" (Pl. XII in farm names, Pl. XLIII for 
colour). 

96. A plant. Sign for the syllable hen (Pl. XI, 
lowest register). The later forms and the printed 
form are so different from this as to be hardly recog- 
nized as the same sign. The plant is evidently the 
little succulent plant which grows in all the hollows 
on the desert at Saqqara in February and March, 
making little green oases in the midst of the sand. 
From the great variability in the form of this sign — 
more than one kind of plant being represented in 
different tombs — I am disposed to think that it 
represents a special stage in the growth of the plant. 
In the plant typical of the south the three different 
stages — bud, leaf, and blossom — are used for three 
different words (Pl. XLII for colour). 

97. A water-lily plant. Sign for /C'/;<7, " thousand " 
(Pl. XXIII in short list of offerings). In Pls. I 
and II there is another form of the same sign in the 
lists of offerings (Pl. XLII for colour). 

98. A roll of papyrus tied and sealed. Det. of 
writing and of abstract words (Pl. VIII in list of 
titles). In early examples the seal is shown and 
sometmies one loose end of the string with which 
the roll is tied ; later, the two ends of string are 
invariably shown (Pl. XLIV for colour). 

76. Pls. XLI-XLV. In these plates anattempt has 
been made to classify the colours of the hieroglyphs. 
It is not by any means a complete list, except of the 
tombs which we cleared, but it may prove a help to 
those who are studying the signs and their original 
meanings. 

In comparing the colours used for flesh, it is 
remarkable that in early examples, Seker-kha-bau and 
his wife at Saqqara, and Rahotep at Medum (Petrie, 



46 



HIEROGLYPHS. 



Meduiii) and Khnumhetep (B. M. 1,143) the flesh 
tints are generally yellow for both sexes. In the Vth 
Dynasty these hieroglyphs are conventionalized, 
red for men, yellow for women. 

The conventional colour, black, for the jackal is 
certainly curious, as being quite different to the 
yellowish tints of the animal. In the figure of the 
jackal"god the colour is probably meant to show that 
it is a wooden animal. The convention lasted to the 
latest periods, the wooden jackals found in tombs 
being always covered with black paint. The fore- 
part of the lion Hd shows great diversity of colour, 
and is evidently not intended to represent the true 
colours of the animal. In the tomb of Rahotep* 
(Petkie, Medum, pis. xiii and xxviii), the muzzle 
and foreleg are green, the mane yellow, and the ear 
black. In the tomb of Merab (L. D. ii, 19) the fore- 
leg is blue, the head 3'ellow. 

The Egyptian artists evidently found great diffi- 
culty, with the few pigments at their disposal, in 
representing the colours of the birds, blue and black 
appear to interchange, also green and blue, and red 
and yellow ; whereas in other signs in which the 
colours are more definite on the original object the 
only interchange is between blue and black. 

Of the lower orders of living creatures the only 
variations worth noting are, (i) the cvocoiWe sebek, 
which in the tomb of Nefermaat (Petrie, Mcdiini, 
pi. xviii) is yellow with black legs ; and (2) the fish 
iinz, which in the tomb of Merab (L. D. ii, 22) is 
green with red fins. 

Pl. XLIII. In the sign representing a pool the 
distinguishing letters have been omitted. A is the 
outer rim, B the water. 

In the two signs representing channels of water, it 
is not very certain by the colour as to which part is 
intended for the water. In the tomb of Merab 
(L. D. ii, 22) the mer sign is shown with A black and 
B yellow ; and in the same tomb the uat sign has A 
green, B black, and C red. 

Kha has been written inadvertently iox yat. 

The sign Nes or G varies a good deal in colour ; 



* Part of this tomb with this sign is now in the Biiiish 
IVIuseuni, Nos. 1,242 and 1,277. 



usually it is red, sometimes yellow (also Petrie 
Medum, pl. xiii), and once green. 

Pl. XLIV. The row of klient vases are evidently 
reminiscent in colour of the red and black pottery, 
which was commonly used in prehistoric and early 
dynastic times. The tops are either blue or black, 
the body of the vase red. The colour of the sup- 
ports (?) varies, being sometimes the same colour as 
the top, sometimes the same as the body of the vases. 
The nil vase is generally blue or black, varied 
occasionally (Rahotep and Merab) by reverting to the 
prehistoric black-topped type. In the tomb of Atet 
(Petrie, Medum, pl. xxvii), there is an example 
where it is yellow. 

In all the signs of rush work or fibre there is 
variation between green and yellow, showing that 
the rushes and fibres were used both fresh and dried 
(Griffith, Hieroglyphs, p- 4,"). The yellow is found 
in the earlier tombs as a rule. 

The loaf of bread is interesting as showing that 
even in the Vth Dynasty it was possible to obtain a 
good brown crust to a loaf. In the inscriptions of 
Merab of the IVth Dynasty, however, the sign is 
black, evidently with a burnt crust. 

Pl. XLV. The colouring of the emblematic or 
magical signs, rt'^^/and sekliem, is extremely elaborate. 
One of the earliest examples of the ded (Petrie, 
Medum, pl. xiii) shows the upper part — the capitals 
of the "pillars" — -alternately green and red with 
yellow edges, the lower part being yellow. 

The ^r^i'.f-harpoon, like the flint-knife, varies in 
colour, being sometimes of its natural hue, blue in 
the one case, black in the other ; and sometimes red, 
which I suppose to represent the implement when 
made of copper. The ^^/-dagger is generally red, 
but in the stele of Khnum-hetep (Brit. Mus. 1,143) it 
is blue. 

The trap is a rare sign. In the tomb of Nefermaat 
(Petrie, Medum, pl. xviii) it is red. The three grains, 
determinative of the plural, are not uniform, being 
sometimes red, sometimes blue, and sometimes black. 
And the numeral One also varies between red and 
black ; in the tomb of Merab (L. D. ii, 21) it is black, 
and in the tomb of Ptahbaunefer (L. D, ii, 55) it is 
red. 



( 47 ) 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Adze, Method of securing blade 

of 44 

Agriculture, Scenes of . . .IS 

Alabaster table of offerings . . 4 

,, vases for perfumes . 32 

Altar with arm 23 

Altars, Measurements of . . 18,24 
Alterations in sculptured figures 

14, 23 
Ambrosia, Eg^-ptian name of . 38 
Amphora-handle, Stamped . . 28 
Amulet, Shell-shaped ... 14 
Animal, Erased 14 

„ of Set 42 

Animals, Colours of . . . .46 

,, Dwarf 13 

,, led to sacrifice 13, 14, 16, 
21, 22, 23, 26, 27 

„ sketched . . . M, 16 
Apa Jeremias, Monastery of . 29 
Apparatus for writing , . .45 
Architraves, Inscribed 8, 10, 23, 28 

Ateta, Statue of IQ 

,, Measurements of statue . 19 



Baskets 14, 16, 21 

„ Patterns on . . . .14 

„ Rope ring for carrj-ing . 14 

Basket work on jars . . . 21,44 

Batter of walls . . . • 5> 7, 28 

Bead necklace as sign for 

"Gold" 44 

Beads, Pear-shaped . . . 16, 20 

Bearer of offerings, Woman . .17 

Bearers of offerings 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 

16, 17, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27 

Beer 39 

,, Sweet 34 

Birds as hieroglyphs . . . .41 

,, Colours of 46 

,, Names of 39 

„ Sacrifice of 9, 15, 16, 21, 22, 27 

Blue lotus 16, 21 

,, in bowls . . . .21 



Boats, Wooden models of 

Bolte fish 

Bowl of sacrificial blood . 

,, with spout . 
Boy with bowl of blood . 
Bread made of lotus . 

,, Names of . 



PAGE 

. 19 

• 42 
10, 21 



. 21 
• 30 

33. 37, 38, 39 
,, Slices of . . . 3, 25, 40 

Breath pastilles 31 

Bricks, Measurements of 5, 7, 18, 26 
Brick walls. Measurements of 7, 24 
Building, Charms on a . . .42 
Burning incense . . . .20,21 
Butter 39 



Cakes, Names of . , 33, 37, 38, 39 
Castor oil for burning . . .32 
Cavetto moulding . . . 19, 26 

Cedar oil 31, 34 

Ceremony of purification . . 20 
Charms on a building ... 42 

Cheese 39 

Christian church, Remains of . 28 
Clarifying water with natron . 37 
Clothes, Perfumes for . . .31 
Colour on statue of Sheikh el 

Beled 4 

Colour on hieroglyphs 6, 8, 12, 19, 

20, 23, 25, 26 

Colours in tombs. , 13, 19, 22, 25 

,, of animals . . . . 46 

„ „ flesh 45 

,, ,, magical signs . . . 46 
„ „ pigments .... 46 
,, „ women's dresses 4, 13, 15, 

16, 23 
Columns, Proto-Doric ... 43 
Construction of tombs 5, 7, 10, 17, 
19, 24, 25, 28 
Conventional colours ... 46 
Coptic inscription . . . 28, 29 
Copying, Sculpture squared for . 15 
Corn grinders . . . . 33i 35 



Costume of Akhethetep . 
,, ,, Kheri-heb-'^xi&'il 
,, ,, Ptahhetep . 

Courses of masonry , 

Crescent-shaped baskets . 

Crested heron 

Cross-lashing, Painted 
,, ,, Sculptured 

Crust on loaf of bread 

" Cyprus " perfume . 



PAGE 
. 13 

• 13 

• 13 
19, 24 
14, 16 

• 15 

i3> 25 

. IQ 
. 46 
. 31 



Date-flour 32 

Dates of tombs . . • .1,5,19 
Decoration of lotus blossom . . 5 
Determinative of festival . . 44 

AiVTtpdpLO^ 29 

Dog 9, 10 

Donkeys, Scenes of . . . 7) 1 5 
Door-bolt, Hole for . . . .17 
Door, Pivot -hole for . . . .17 
Doors, Measurements of 18, 24, 26 
Doorways, Painted . . . 12, 17 
„ Sculptured . 23, 27, 28 

Draught-board hieroglyph . . 45 
Dresses, Men's 3, 8, 9, 10, 13, 16, 20, 

21, 23,41 
„ Women's 4, 8, 9, 13, 15, 

23- 41 
Drill for stone vases .... 44 
Dwarf animals 13 



Ebony, Furniture of . ... 35 

Edible lotus 30 

,, papyrus 30 

Egyptian name of ambrosia . . 38 
Erased figures . . . . 14, 16 
Eye-paint 36 



Fattening of hyaenas ... 29 
Farm women. Procession of. 13, 15 
Festival, Determinative of . 43, 44 
Figures erased . . . . 14, ib 



48 



INDEX. 



PAGE PAGE 

Fish, Mythological .... 42 Hyaenas, bred in confinement . 29 

Flesh tints 45 „ domesticated ... 29 

Floor, Sloping . . . . iq, 24 „ Fattening of . . .29 

Fly flap 9, 10 

Fowling I ; 

Fragments, tomb of Ptahhetep II 1 7 

Framework of reeds, Imitation Ichneumon 42 

13, 19 Imitation granite 6, 7, 10, 17, 23^ 

Frieze of uraei 43 2^,26 

Fruit, Names of . 33) 34i 35i 36, 40 f, . framework of reeds 13,19 

Funeral rites 20,22 Incense, Burning , . .20,21 

Furniture of ebony .... 35 „ and Water, purification 

„ „ sa3-\\'ood . . 34, 35 by 20 

„ Names of . . . 34,35 Ingredients of /zc/^;/«-perfume . 31 

,, ,, metopium . . 30 

„ „ mesei-perfiiTne . 31 

,, „ " Perfume of the 

Glass, Roman 28 frontier" 31 

Goats 26 Inscribed architraves . 8, 10,23,28 

Grain, Names of . . 34, 35, 36, 40 Inscription, Coptic . . .28, 29 
Grandson of Sekhemka . . . q 
Granite statue. Fragment of . 3 
„ Imitation 6, 7, 10, 17, 23, 

25, 26 Jackal, colour of 46 

Green eye-paint, Use of . . 4,36 Jars with basket-work . . 21,44 
Grinding stones for corn . 33,35 Jeremias, Monastery of ... 20 

Joints of meat. Names of 33, 37, 38, 

39 



Lotus, pink . 
„ roots . 
,, seed-vessels 



PAGB 

16, 17, 21, 22 
21, 22, 28,' 30 
. . . 30 



Handle of amphora. Stamped 
Hansard, Miss .... i. 

Hatchet 

Jifeinu-oi[, Receipt for making . 

Jlen-plant 

Herdsmen pulling down a heifer 

Heron, Crested 

Hetep-&\.one% . . . . 19, 25, 
„ ,, measurements of 18, 

26, 

Jlt'/kes-ammal 

Hierogl3-phs, Birds as . . . 
,, Colour on 6, 8, 12, 

Rare . . 41,43, 
,, Scratched . q, 10, 

High-priest of Ptah, Necklace of 
Hill of Memphis, Monastery of . 
Hole for door-bolt 
Holes, Unexplained . 
Honey .... 
Hornless oxen 
Houses, Perfume for . 
Hyaenas .... 
,, as offerings . 



30, 31, 



28 
28 
44 
31 
45 
23 
15 
26 

24. 

28 

42 
41 
19. 
20 
46 

-> — 
-/ 

3 

29 

17 

39 
22 

31 

14 
29 



Khalifa, Reis 1,2,; 

A'/ieier-ornament . 19, 20, 22, 42 

Kheri-heb priests . 4, 13, 20, 21, 22 

,, ,, Costume of .13 

Knots 15, 44 

Kohl ^6 



Leading-rope, Methods of fasten- 
ing 14. 22, 23, 27 

Leopard skin 3,9,20 

Libation tank :; 

Libyan oil 32 

Linens, Names of .... 33 
Lists of offerings 3, 4, 16, 17, 19, 20, 

22, 25, 27 

„ „ sacred oils . . . 12, 26 

Loaf of bread. Crust of . . .46 

Long-horned oxen . . 22, 34, 35 

Lotus-blossom decoration . . ^ 

Lotus, blue 16, 21 

,, ,, in bowls . . . .21 
„ bread %o 



Magical signs. Colour of . . .46 
Mariette's plans . . 2, 6, 11, 18, 19 
Marsh plants, Hieroglyphs of . 43 
Masonry, Courses of . . 12, 19, 24 

Maspero, M 2 

Measurements of altar . . 18,24 
,, ,, bricks . 5, 7, 18, 26 

,, ,, brick walls 7, 24 

,, „ doors . 18, 24, 26 

,, ,, hetep-^tonti, 18, 24, 

26, 28 
„ ,, libation tank . 5 

„ „ niche ... 24 

,, ,, pedestal . . 19 

,, ,, recesses . .18 

„ „ statue of Ateta 19 

,, „ stone block . 18 

,, „ stone seat . . lo 

„ ,, window . . 24 

Meat, Joints of . . -^.i, 37, 2,^, 39 

Melons 39 

Men's costumes 3, 8, q, 10, 13, 16, 
20, 21, 23,41 
Method of securing blade of adze 44 
Methods of fastening leading- 
ropes . . . .14, 22, 23, 27 
Metopiiim perfume .... 30 

J/^if/ perfume 31 

Min, sign for 44 

Models of boats 19 

,, ,, offerings . . . .19 
Monastery of Apa Jeremias . . 29 

Mongoose 42 

Mothersole, Miss . . . . i 

Mud plaster 7, 10 

Mythological fish .... 42 

Name of dog 9, 10 

Names of birds 39 

„ „ cakes . . 33, 37, 38, 39 
„ „ fruit . 33, 34, 35, 36, 40 
„ „ furniture ... 34, 35 
„ „ grain . . 34, 35, 36. 40 
„ „ joints of meat 33,37,38,39 

,, ,, linens 33 

,, I, parts of stele ... 2 



INDEX. 



49 



PAGE 

Names of sacred oils . . 33, 35, 36 

„ „ vases . , 33, 34, 35, 37 

„ „ wines .... 35, 40 

Natron for clarifying water . .37 

iV(?(^-baskets 14 

Necklace of beads .... 44 

„ „ High-priest of Ptah 3 

Neter^ Hieroglyph for . . . 45 

Niche, Sculptured .... 23 

„ „ Measurements 

of . .24. 



Offerings 11, 12, 14, 16, 21, 22, 26,27 

,, Bearers of q, 10, 11, 12, 

15.16,17,21,22,23,25,27 

„ Lists of 3, 4, 16, 17, iq, 

20, 22, 25, 27 

„ Models of 

Oil, Castor 

,, Libyan 

,, of cedar 

Oils, Lists of 

Onions 

Ox, Hornless 

,, Long-horned 

,, Short-horned 

,, with deformed horn 



• 


19 


■ 


32 


• 


32 


31, 


34 


12, 


26 


. 


38 


. 


22 


2, 34, 


35 


34, 


35 


, 


22 



Painted doorways 

Palm oil, Scented 

Panther skin . 

Papyrus as food . 

Parts of stele. Names of 

Pattern of rectangles 

Patterns on baskets . 
„ „ stele. . 

Pedestal, Measurements of 

Pendant beads 

" Perfume of the frontier " 

Perfumes, Alabaster vases for 
„ for clothes 

,, ,, houses 

„ ,, the breath 

,, Receipts for mak 

Pesesh, the dog . 

Petrie, Mrs. . . 
„ Prof. . . . 

Pigments, Colours of 

Pigtails .... 

Pillars .... 



12, 



3, 9, 



7, 



9, 



17 
31 
20 

30 

25 
14 
25 

iq 
20 

31 

32 
31 
31 
3' 
31 
10 

, 3 
20 
46 

15 

28 



PAGE 

Pink lotus ... 16, 17, 21, 22 
Pitchforks, Three-pronged . .15 
Pivot hole for door . . . .17 
Plans, Mariette's. . 2, 6. 11, iS, 19 
Plastered walls . . 5, 6, 8, 20, 26 
Position of tombs . . i, 8, 11, 19 
Pottery, XVIIIth and XXnd 

Dynasties 24 

Priests, Khcri-heb 4, 13, 20, 21, 22 
Procession of farm-women . 13,15 
Proto-Doric columns ... 43 
" Prunkscheinthor " . . . . 5 
Ptah, Necklace of High-priest of 3 

Pumpkins -^9 

Purification, Ceremony of . .20 



Quarry mark. Traces of . 



17 



Rare hieroglyphs . . 41, 43, 46 
Receipt for making heknu--^tx- 

fume . 31 
„ „ „ mezet-^&x- 

fume . 31 
Recess in wall. Unexplained . 15 
Recesses, Measurements of . . 18 
,, Pointed . . . .17 
Rectangles, Patterns of . . 17, 25 
Remains of Christian church . 28 
Rites, Funeral .... 20, 22 

Roman glass 28 

„ pillars 28 

Roofing stones 6, 7, 12, 17, i8, 23, 

24, 25, 28 
Roots of lotus . . . 21,22,28,30 
Rope-ring for carrying baskets . 14 
Rubi, Reis 2, 4, 5 



Sacred oils -^o 

,, „ Lists of . . . 12, 26 
,, „ Names of. . 33, y-.^ 36 

Sacrifice of birds 9, 15, 16, 21, 22, 27 

,, Animals led to 13, 14, 16, 

21, 22, 23, 26, 27 

Saz-\'iOoA furniture . . . 34, 35 

Scenes of agriculture . . . i ^ 
„ „ donkeys . . . 7, 15 
„ „ fowling . . . .15 
,, ,, sacrifice 10, i ^, 22, 2;, 26 



4 
14 
35 



PAGE 

Scenes, Traces of . . . 7, 10 
Scented palm-oil .... 31 
Scratched hieroglyphs . 9, 10, 27 
Scribe's writing apparatus , . 45 
Sculpture squared for copying . 15 
Sculptured doorways . 23, 27, 28 

Seat, Stone 8 

Sebakhin, Work of . . . 28, 29 
Seed-vessels of lotus .... 30 
Sekhet, Uab-^ntit of . . .15 
Serdab, Unfinished .... 5 

Set-animal 42 

Sden-lutep 22, 37 

Sethe, Prof. i, 5, 43 

^Z/rtZ-cake 39 

Sheikh el Baled, Colour on statue 

of 

Shell-shaped amulet .... 
Short-horned ox . . . .34 

Shrines 43 

Size of bricks . . .5, 7, 18, 26 
Sketches in red paint 12, 14, 16, 26 

vSkew passage 17 

Slater, Miss Phoebe .... I 
Slices of bread on table of offer- 
ings 3, 25, 40 

Sloping floor 19,24 

„ wall .... -« 

Spoonbill .... 
Statue, granite, Fragment of 
Statue of Ateta . 
Stele, Names of parts of . 

„ ofXIXth Dynasty 

,, patterns on 

„ Ptahhetep I . . 

„ typical 

Stibium 

Stone block .... 

,, ,, Measurements of 

„ seat .... 

,, „ Measurements of 

„ vases. Drill for 
Stones for grinding corn 
Stones, Roofing 6, 7, 12, 17, i 

2J. ' 

Stucco 7, ] 

Sweet beer 

Sycamore figs .... 



15 

3 

19 



36 



i: 



18 

8 

10 

44 

3, 35 
>, 23, 
5, 28 
2, 17 

34 
40 



Table of offerings. Alabaster 
Tank for libations 
Three-pronged pitchforks . 

H 



4 

5 

15 



50 



INDEX. 



Tombs, Construction of 5, 7, 10, 17, 

IQ, 24, 25, 28 

,, Dates of . . . . i, 5. iq 
,, Position of . . I, 8, 11, iq 
,, unrecorded by Mariette 5, 

Traces of quarry mark . . ■ i~ 

,, „ scenes . . . . 7, 10 

Typical stele 2 



Uai-priest of Sekhet 




i^ 


Unrecorded tombs . 


■ 5) 7i 


2; 


Uraei, Frieze of . 




43 


Use of green eye-paint . 


• 4. 


36 


Usek/i-hdiskets 


• 1+ 


lb 



Variation in colour of hiero- 
glyphs 45-46 

Vases, Names of . . 33, 34, 35, 37 
Vessels with spouts . 9, 22, 27, 33 



Wall, Batter of . . . . 5, 7, 28 
„ Mud brick ... 7, 25 

,, Sloping 28 

,, Unexplained .... 7 
Water and incense. Purification 

by 20 

Water clarified by natron . .37 
Weigall, Mr. A. E. . . 1,2, 3' 6 
Whitewash . . . 5, 6, 8, 20, 26 
Wigs . . 3,4,9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 21 



PAGE 
. IQ 
• 24 

35. 40 

• 15 

• 17 

• 15 
13, 15, 23, 

41 

,, ,, Colours of 4, 13, 

15. 16,23 

Writing apparatus .... 45 



Window 

,, Measurements of 
Wines, Names of 
Winnowing .... 
Woman bearing offerings 
Women with pigtails 
Women's dresses 4, 8, 9, i 



Ymakk, Hieroglyph for 
Yule. Mr. R. A. . . 



45 
I 



1 :7 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF SEKER-KHA-BAU, IIIRD DYN. 




1:6 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF SEKER-KHA-BAU, lliRD DYN. 




STELE OF THE WIPE. 



1:4- 



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1;6 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF THE SHEIKH EL BELED, Etc., IVth DYN. 



III. 



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IV. 




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VI. 



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VII. 



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SAQQARAr TOMB OP PTAHHETEP II, STELE, Vth DYN. 



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SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II, SOUTH WALL, Vth DYN. 




IX. 



FARM-WOMEN BRINGING OFFERINGS. 



J M. 
M.A.M 



1 :7 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II, Vth DYN. 
SOUTH WALL. 




FARM-WOMEN BRINGING OFFERINGS. 



J.M. 
M.A.M. 



1 ;7 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II, EAST WALL, Vth DYN. 



XI. 



<2-jU Snx 




SCENES OF AGRICULTURE, BIRD-CATCHING, AND SACRIFICE, 



F.H^ 
M.A.M. 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II, Vth DYN. XII. 

NORTH WALL. 




FARM WOMEN BRINGING OFFERINGS. 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II, Vth DYN. 



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SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II, DOORWAYS, Vth DYN. 



XIV. 



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NORTH DOORWAY 
3 









SOUTH DOORWAY 



M.A.M. 



1:7 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II, Vth DYN. 
PAINTED CHAMBER, WEST, SOUTH AND NORTH WALLS. 



iC^M- 



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PAINTED CHAMBER, EAST WALL. 



XVI. 









M.A.M, 



1:7 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHHETEP II, Vth DYN. 



XVII. 



1:8 



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XVII 




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XIX 








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1:9 



SAQQARA; TOMB OF USER-NETER, STELE, Vth DYN. 



XX. 



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XXII 




1:9 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF USER-NETER, SOUTH WALL, Vth DYN. 




F,H. 
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MA.M. 



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SAQQARA: TOMB OF USER-NETER, NICHE, Vth DYN. 



XXIV. 




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F.H. 
M.A.M. 



1 :9 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF USER-NETER. Vth DYN. 
ARCHITRAVE, DOORWAYS, Etc. 



XXV. 




ARCHITRAVE 




DOORWAY 






FRAGMENT 




DRUM OF INNER DOOR 



iP'-^-;f 




DRUM OF OUTER DOOR 



FRAGMENTS 



F.H. 
M.A.M. 



1 :10 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHSHEPSES I, STELE, VIth DYN. 



XXVI. 



U LJ U 

□ n n 

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P.S. 

M.A.M. 



1 : 10 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHSHEPSES I, Vth DYN. 



XXVII. 



11M!f!^ 



DRUM 




TABLE OF OFFERINGS 





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1:8 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHSHEPSES II, STELE, VIth DYN. 



XXVIII. 



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1 : 8 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHSHEPSES II, NORTH WALL, VIth DYN. 



XXIX. 




J M. 
MA.M 



1: 8 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHSHEPSES II, SOUTH WALL, VIth DYN. 



XXX. 




1 :8 



SAQQARA: TOMB OF PTAHSHEPSES 
DOORWAYS, Etc. 



VlTH DYN. 



XXXI. 



















1; 100 



SAQQARA: TOMB PLANS AND SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



SEKER-KHA-BAU 
f///////////A 




STELE 



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EAST WALL SOUTH WALL 



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SAQQARA: TOMB PLAN AND SECTIONS. 



XXXIll. 













































DOOR 









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WEST WALL 



I 



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M AM. 



1 MOO 



SAQQARA: TOMB PLANS AND SECTIONS. 



XXXIV. 














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DOOR 



SOUTH WALL 



PTAH-SHEPSES T 



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SECTION 



M.A.M, 



1 : 200 



1 : 50 

PTAHHETEP I 



SAQQARA: TOMB PLANS AND SECTIONS. 



XXXV. 







UJ 

_) 
tiJ 
I- 
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R.A.Y. 
M A ,M 



1 : 3 



SAQQARA: VARIA. 



XXXVI. 




STATUE 







COPTIC POTTERY AND INSCRIPTION. 



1 :2 



SAQQARA; HIEROGLYPHS. 



XXXVII. 






P J M. 
M A.M. 



1:2 



SAQQARA: HIEROGLYPHS. 



XXXVIII 





K 




P 




31 




28 



S 







u 



p 



34. 




35 




)< 



36 



s>mii////y 



n 



K 



37 



VtV-%ttV 



U§ 



□ U 



u 



38 



39 



40 





->vJ~ 










T[ TT TT 


IT F TT 


-1 




4-1 



42 



LjMi— I 



Mmiffl 



^ 



K 



u 



P 



P 



F.H. 
J M. 
M.A.M- 



1:2 



SAQQARA: HIEROGLYPHS. 



XXXIX. 



mwm 



44 






jSEDZt. 



t 



47 



u 






50 





P 



53 





54 



55 



e" 



s 




57 




58 



v; 



61 



63 



OL—O—CL «° 






62 







U 





4sl 



qc 




M.A.M. 



1 :2 



SAQQARA: HIEROGLYPHS. 



XL. 





70 




P 



71 





74- 





76 




c 



79 



80 



P 
84- 



^\ -III HI 111 Mi 







85 




P 




PS. 



94 



Ani^aAr^ 



3 




96 




82 




P.S 



87 



^ 




97 




H 



V 



83 



mmmn 



88 




89 




MM^NMI 



98 



P 



J.M. 
MAM. 











SAQQARA: COLOURS 


OF HIEROGLYPHS. 








XLI. 


. -J 
00 


J 


S 

i 

in 


Cl. 

O Lu 

-r i-u 


CO 




Ski 

Lo-J 




a: 

ULJ 

-a; 


tli ^ 

r 




i 


Lt-I 

i 




^W 


A 








A.|-«£l 

B. black 














A. red 

B.LLklIc 




=-r- 


a C|OoL 














n.recL 


A.G bloci- 
13. red 










5»- 


ch'dA. 












r3. i-cd. 














.-#"• 


SER 










A. block 
f3. red 


KUk. R r«{ 
C.wlufe.H roi 


A. red. 


A.Uk.B.rut 
C.wkiC 


t3. vccL 








-^c 


UAB 






C-rtcL 






A.Gred.l5,blJ< 














»■' 


SHE PS 


















A. red 








^i 


KAT 








Qred, 


A.G red 
r3. bLcLtk 












r3. block 
G red 




¥^ 


exclQnidticr 


I 










A. bfoLtk 
13. red. 














<-0Lra 


MAAT 










A yellow 
B.C green 


A.yclXow 
13. C green 


IB. qreen 












^ID 


TEP 








A.GbLctcA 

B. vccl 


A. blr^i^ 
13. red. 


B. red. 






A.r Wacfc 
rarrecL 




A.Ct(fld< 


A.6(ojUc 


^i« 


HER 












r3. red 
C red 




13. rcjJ. 








A.G block; 




AR 


A-G Mack 


A.(l block 




A.Ctl'«i< 




A.Uk.B.red 
C dark reel 






A.blrmk 
C reel 




A.Q. blade 






R 




yellow 


red. 


red. 


red. 


red 


red 




red 




red 




C^il 


D 




yeLLow 


red. 


red. 


Ye.d 
















,^— n 


A 


recL 








red 




red 


red 


red 


reoL 


red 




6^ 














r-ed. 














A^ 


DA 






















A. i-ed 
13. bloxJf 




a=5 


oFFo'uiq 


















A.rect 
f3.qi-eeu 








^ 


KA 








AB. red 


















U 


KA 






red. 




red 


red 


red 








red. 




H 


KA 






red 






red 


red 












V 


ZESER 










A. red 
[3. brown 








B.i,Lae 








^ 


KHEN 












re.d 














J 


NEPER 




red- 








red 










red 




^ 


Ab 


vecL 








racL 




red 












J 


B 


yellow 


yctioV 


red 






red 














=J! 


l>et:p(- 
motion 






















red 




"=1 


NES 






\zd. 




red. 


red 














m 


llet; of 
h.ai.r 








fcbxk 


















=^ 


ANPU 










tlrtck 


ilack 






tLodc 




I) Lack 


(>Lack 


^^ 


sm 






black 




bUA 


()LqJ< 


Lu^k 








binrk 




.^^ 


UN 










red 




yeUOw 












Ir^ 


ISA 












D^ck 














Si5f 


Ars 




Uaxk 






















'^feSS' 


UP 












bUxck 






ytlLow 








'^-^ 


HA 


















red 


A. yellow 
a'blcL*. 


A. yellow 
fe/re.d 




€) i 


?)mA 


Spot t(x)xk 


yfeliow 
spots tuuk 






















IBI 


KHEN 


red 
























•^ 


SHED 










red 

















M A.M. 



SAQQARA: COLOURS OF HIEROGLYPHS. 



XLI 



CO 


r^ 


i 

U-l 
CO 


HATHOR 
NEPER- HETEP 


1_LJ 

C/0 


>- 
=E 

1— 


LJ-J 

^— 

Li_l 

si: 




=1= 
1 






u-l 

i 




i-kj 




i 


USER 










bLicJ. 


















*.f«-' 


SFT 








n:.Ql\jax.V 




















c^. 


M 








reoL 


tSGroUuktiti 


A B. yellow 
G red 


yellovv- 


red 


yellow wi-tti 
red tnarkitujs 










I>^ 


A 


A.D, re<i 
B.Llack 


A.GD. tlruJ< 

B.yeliow 




()l£Lck 


trowTUskyeiloM 


yeA 




KBC qretn 
X). red. 












> 


U 




yeLLovY^ 


yellow 




brownisli yellow 


yellow wUK 


yeUowwiBi 








yellow 






-<^' 


AMENT 














6. qrcen 














-m 


NETER 










A. Liu*. 
13. reel 




A Qreen 
I3CD. red 














% 


ZEHUTI 


















A. black 
6. qreen. 










.-^^ 


SA 
















A. red 
fS.qreen 












.i^- 


PA 
















3.C I'lj-t.e 












'W" 


ZAT 














B. Llu£ 














"--^" 


BA 








A.B. tint 




















^^-c 


UR 


1>U< 


ILotk 






t3.C l>Lae 


B-CtU 


uLu.a. 




\Ajjjl 










d"^c 


REKHYT 










t3.C liloe 


D.red 
















^:^'^ 


NUT 














B.C tU 














^ ^c 


Akh 












red. 


red. 


B red 

f. qreen 












1 


ieh of 
tirds 














yellow 














^ 


100.000 












oreen. 
















^'^ 


z 




bLotU 






jrowmdiycOcw 


A.yeUoW 
B. green 


A. yellow 
B. green 














A-^ xli 


F 










yelLow 


A.blacJ< 
B. yellow 






A. birtfk 

B. yellow 




AbU/J< 
B. re.dL 






-^ 


SE3EK 












liLoxk 
















^ 


AD 










l)Lae 


















i 


KHEPER 












[Lxck 
















^^^ 


KHET 




yellDW 
























q 


A 








greevi. 


green 


are.s-\\ 


(jreen 


areen 


qreevt 










M 


AU 








A.qveen 








A. (jrccu 












«;«, 


SEKHET 








AB.f^veen 














B. Ijliie 








NN 












A.qvceii. 




grecia 












* 


SETEN 




<^reen 




(jreeu 


^reen 




green 




greo^ 












KENA 












qreen. 
















8-gW-A 




















A. green 
13.(1 blue 










«r2 


HA 




B.LLxck 








oreen 


Qreen 














X 


KHA 




(jreen 
























»4-'c 


KHA 








A.C qieen 
B. red 




A^ cvee« 
(3. rM 


A.rqreevi 

ra.i-ed 














A 


De-t; of 










yflLow 


















-IP. 


■w/ine 








A.f"!- 
f3.I>.qiee»i 


Greci 


















J 


HEN 








are£H 








gree-n. 












f 


RENP 


















(jlue 






T*?r 


7/\- 


Ci 


Dtt. of 

(frain. 










yellow 



















M.A.M. 



SAQQARA: COLOURS OF HIEROGLYPHS. 



XLIII. 



>- 

ar-> 

en 


M 

S3 

1^ 


l-J-J 


HATHOR- 
NEFER-HETEP 




^ 


Ljl_i 




a. 
t— 

Ui-J 






■ ■ ' 

Q_ 

i 


1 




ffi-^B 


SHA 


B.l>lAd< 


13. LUck 






















s- 


MES 


















B.tLLc 








o o o 


TA 








uLu£. 




bU 


bluLe 




bU 








.i^:;^ 


N 


LLack 


(jlack 


()Uu:,U 


block 


black 


blo-d 


block 




(■Lack 




LUJc 


(jLoLck 


^ 


HEM 




black 






bluK. 
















l-^-i^-A 


SH 


tB.tloJc 


tkJc 
















bla<L 


(.!...> 




(QKSm) 










A.Uack 


















n l^ra 


MER 










blat 


A.qrean. 


ra.Llae 












■ u 


UAT 


















rS.LUjut 








(^ 


NET 








A.bLoxk 


blue- 


bltie. 


A. red. 
IS. LLuL 


t)lij.e 


blue. 








CD 


UT]EB 












Q<-een. 














«^:S"^ 


KHA 
















A. green. 










^^.% 


W 












S. qree.li 


r 












^:t 


SEMT 














rcd-.f? qretti 












2 
















red 












® 


RA 








red. 






led 




raci 








^-1 


ABD 


















A.qraarL 
tS.^red. 








1^- 




















A qreea 








■ 














y^lW 














=cs= 


S 






reA 






red. 


r«i 








red. 




M-;". 


KHER 




R. red. 




A.Mrvck 
B.red 


A.I>Li<L 
t3. red. 


A. ULiu 

B. red 












B.rcd. 


^ 


T>et; of 


LLck 


ttaJc 










bltLe 












n 


SEH 


















bW 








m 


NES 


rerl 


red. 


reoL 




ytllow 


vwL 






qreen 








®:: 


HEB 


















A.l>Lu.e 

B.Cjreea 








1 


AN 






















red 




A-^ 


M:of 
pyramid 












A.VEd. 

B.yeliow 


yellow 












m 


HET 








(,U( 


















o 


PER 








LLuJ< 




ulut 


blae 


UorJ< 
I.W 


blue 








=T 


HEP 












Cjrez-n 














« 




















B. recL 
G. careen. 








flfcf 


SEH 






B.red. 




















J\ 


SET 








^rce.Ti. 


uIujE 


l,Lux 


areen. 












..a^^ 


TA 










bloe 


A.Gv«.tLow 
B.&lu£ 














a^cK 


HFTUSEKHT 










A.LLoi 
(3. red. 


E.r&i 


AtU , 

ra.CE.red- 
D.vcHov- 




























A.vcJ^'ow 
ft.tlut 


A. red 

B. bLtui 










m 


H 




LIa^ 


blxLt 


tb-tk 




blae. 














■^ 


festLvuL 


















yellow 








A 


:da 








bUck 


blue 


tlack 






bU. 




GLcIc 






























M.A.ri 



SAQQARA: COLOURS OF HIEROGLYPHS. 



XLIV. 



CO 


•J 
1^ 


i 

sir 

LJ-] 
LXJ 

CO 




5 

U-I 
CO 


>- 


LXJ 
ULJ 


LJ-l ^ 

:3r o 


C2_ 

JUi 

zxz 
1- 

l_LJ 


c 

Li_l 


LU 


■_l_l 

i 


Li_ 

s 






ODO 


D(2.C:.of- 
festivaL 


















red 










■=d 


Dec-. oF 








red 




















n 


Bet: of 
olL 




















y(llok(,SfX>Sui 
bliui red 








0* 


KHNEM 












blue 
















y 


HEN 






(jloe. 


bLck 




l)U 




blat 
LLock 












MH^ 


KHENT 






ra.C l-ed 


13. rtd 


A.C. ktuc 
13. red 


A.C. blui. 
B.red 






13 red 












AN 






A.Ulu. 

Bred. 




A. blue. 


a. red 




A.kUu. 
l-a.red 












o 


NU 




klack 




blue 


liLu.t 


blue 




bW 




blue 








o 


USEKHT 










red 


red 


red. 














d:^. 










A. buu. 
a. red 








A. bLocJc 
ta. red 


A.B. red 










J? 


XletioF 
metal vessel 


(.Lack 


























frt 


Det: ^^ 
wine. 


B, yellow 


























^ 


AMAKH 












red. 


red 








red 






S 


SHEN 










kroHTi.HiUi 
red, U.1US 


















®@^ 


MEH 




























¥ 


dloik 












red 
















u 


WA 










qreen 


green 


cjretu 




yellow 










-»> 


SA 












qreen 




green 












1 


H 








green 




green 


green 


green 




green 








^3) 


TH 








creeu 


qreen. 


gi-etii 




green 


green 


c,re.e.n 












fSj 5) A 


ATHET 










A.qrecn 


A . Q rten 
f3. red 
















P 


S 


rtd 


red. 


red 


rfcd 


red 


red. 


red. 




red 




red 






{} 


UD 




yeilow 
























Eiz]B< 


HETEP 




B C-sretn 






A.(: troWTT. 
ri,qret>t 


A.yeaow 
ti.C. qreen 


ra.C. qreen 


A. brorvn. 

ra.C. qreen 


f3.C qreen 










® 


KH 


Ifmcn yellow 


Utiujn yellow 




green 


green 


green 
















B^grA 


P 


ktrtonyellut^ 


Uwon. yellow 




green 


green 


green 


A.^itert. 
B. trow- 


green 


c, I'een 












NfB 








Qi-een 


green 


green 


green 














v_y 




A 


DEBA 












green 




green 












K_^ 


K 








green 


green 


green 


green 


green 












Cc=:^:i 


drtbucKe 












blae 


green 


green 












■m-^ 


SAHU 














green 


A. green 












'"P=^-A 


MEN 












A.creen B.recl 
A.vtllow. B.C|reo 




A. qreen 
















MAAT 










red 


















/ 


1 







bread 








brovrn, 


wown. 




red 


red 


orange 










^ 






yellovv^ wiJiv. 
black liivti 
























A- 


te 


SESH 






Ctt^ 


AI)(B.'J<.D,an. 
rS.C.F. rti 


A.rcd. 
D qreen 


A.kloiJf.'Dqn. 


AJa.C.red. 
D qreen 


A.UK.B.C.F red 












^QHT^"^ 


aLstroit Word. 












C. red. 


A.bkuk 
Crtd 












- 



M.A.M. 



SAQQARA: COLOURS OF HIEROGLYPHS. 



XLV. 



d 
.-I 


.J 


i 


HATHOR- 
NEFERHETEP 


::^ 

L.LJ 
CO 


>- 
1— 


1 — 

LJ-l 


1 

G_ 

LXJ 

1 'J- 

LJ-J v3 

1" 


a. 

i 


1" 


Lu 


i 

CO 

1 


i 


i 

3= 


m-A 


IDED 












tikcavkon. 




\i.la.ndi<jii 










¥ 


SEN 






red 






red. 














n n n n 


HEBS 












red 














f 


ANKH 








LUuJk 






tLck 




oreen 








.r« ■ 


SEKHEM 








qreea 


qreen 


ACq^f-^n 


13. red. 












t^ — » 


AA 




red. 








liron-n 






|-£d 








B-^-^ 


SAHU 












A.i^reen 














^-mji 


NETER 








AI3yeU»w 
C. qru.n 


A.B yeiUwv 
C, ^reav 


AJi.yjttiow 
C c, ve.cn 


C q reen 




A.ByfUoK 
C green 








^^' 


MA 








Qrcen 


CjTejcn 


A . ^reew 
B.-tveilow 


Qreeii 












%i^ 


MER 


red 


red. 




e Uadc 




A- Irorrii 

B. black 














■^.i^^ 


Bet: of 








A. bi'ow)!. 
B block 


















n 


MER 






A. blue 


Qreeix 




Q rean 














'^ — 1 


UA 








Q.C-llwM 






















KRES 










'oLu.e 


red 






l.>Lae 








%'-\ 


HESMEN 








B l^kck 


















1 


3 


NEI 












red. 


red. 














lit: of 
shoipenuu/ 


reA 






AblocX 

r3 rt<i 










13. red 




A.Llice 
B. red 




-v- V 


let: of 
knlk 






red. 


red. 


l)Uui< 
















s 


TEP 


reA. 


red. 














red 








() 


MEDU 














yelLoyy 












»tt 


HEZ 








1^ red 
C. kUck 




A wluUBra/ 
Ctlodc 














^^ 
















B.red 




blue 










SUN 




l3,Mnri( 






















D 


net: of; 




















btTLck 






r~^ 


Detr: of 
trap 




yedow 






















Cc=^ 


DE8EN 




rtcl 






















t^?. 


IltX: of 
perfoina 




A rtd 






















b 














red 














<^ 














red. 














^ 


K 












blue 






red 








<ii ^ 












Ijrown. 
















o 


let: of 
sacred, oil 




















ydL>w 






m=> 






r^al. 






















r~\ 


T 


bUtck 


binfk 


Llocic 


bLaLk 


Ucu. 


binrk 
bUte, 


bLe 


iU 


tUik 


Llae 


Urt.]< 




o o o 


:[)et:of- 
plural 




reA 


Uue 


tloik 




















Dat: of- 
Oprtnpd 


















(jreeu 











Nuiniriil,oru. 








red. 




LLuk 


red. 













MAM. 



EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT 

TENTH YEAR 
1904 



GUROB 



L. LOAT, F.Z.S. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



Medinet Gurob. 

SECT. 

1. The site .... 

2. The prehistoric cemetery 



3. The Temple 



CHAPTER II. 
The Cemetery. 



4. XVIIIth Dynasty burials. 

5. Cemeter)' of infants 

6. Ptolemaic burials 

7. Animal skulls 



PI. 



vn 



PAGE 
I 
I 
I 



CHAPTER III. 

The Animal Cemetery. 

Pis. viii-xiii. 

SECT. 

8. The site ..... 

9. The mammalia .... 
10; The fishes ..... 

11. Description of burials . 

CHAPTER IV. 
Objects Discovered 

12. Pottery. Pis. i-iii 

13. Scarabs, &c. PI. iv 

14. Shabtis. PI. v 

15. Steles. Pis. xv-xviii. 

16. Stele of High Priest. PL xix 



P.\GE 

3 
3 

3 
4 



6 
6 

7 
7 
8 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PL.\TE 

I. Pottery 

II. Pottery, XVIIIth— XlXth Dyn. . 

I"- ., „ „ „ . 

IV. Scarabs, etc., XVIIIth— XlXth Dyn. 

V. Alabaster, etc., XVIIIth— XlXth Dyn 
VI. 
VII. Burials, XVIIIth-XIXth Dyn. 
VIII. Animal cemetery, XlXth Dyn. 
IX. „ 



P.\GE 

6 
6 
6 
6 

7 

7 
2 

3-6 

3-6 

3-6 



PLATE PAGE 

XI. Animal cemetery, XlXth Dyn. . . 3-6 

XII. „ „ ,, ■ . 3-6 

XIII. Plans of animal cemetery and tomb . 3-6 

XIV. Temple of Tahutmes . . . . i 
XV. Steles XlXth Dyn 7 

XVI. Steles and shabti jar. XlXth Dyn. . 7 

XVII. Steles, etc. XlXth Dyn. ... 7 

XVIII. Steles, etc 7 

XIX. Stele of high priest .... 8 



GUEOB 



CHAPTER I. 



MEDINET GUROB. 



1. The cemetery and town of Medinet Gurob, 
which in Arabic means the town of the crow, are 
situated on the edge of the desert, about a mile and 
a half to the W.-S.-W. of Illahun, on the border of 
the province of the Fayum, and at no great distance 
from the Bahr Yusef. 

The cemetery covers a large area, but is somewhat 
scattered, as the ground was evidently not all equally 
suitable for the excavation of tombs. The town, 
many of whose inhabitants were foreigners, seems 
to have flourished during the XVIIIth Dynasty, and 
probably owed its origin to Tahutmes III. It 
continued on into the XlXth Dynasty, and then 
seems to have fallen into decay. The cemetery, 
however, was again used in Ptolemaic and Roman 
times. 

The ruins of a small village, also dating from the 
X\TIIth Dynasty, lies about 500 yards to the 
south of the old town, in close proximity to an animal 
cemetery. 

Professor Petrie excavated at Gurob some fourteen 
years ago, and the result of his work was published 
in the volumes entitled " Kahun''' and "Illahun.'' 
Since then very little has been done at the site, 
except by natives, who have plundered it extensively. 

2. Hitherto no prehistoric burying place was 
known further north than Sohag; this is some 210 
miles south of a cemetery now discovered. 

This cemetery was on a small " kom " or eminence 
about half-a-mile to the south of the ancient town, 
close to the cultivated land, and consisted of some 
fifty graves, which had been so effectually plundered 
that only three perfect pots and fragments of a few 
other types were obtained (Pl. I, 1-9). 

All of these may be referred to the middle 
prehistoric period, circa 6,000 B.C., according to the 
sequence dating given by Professor Petrie in his 



"Diospolis Parva." The graves were mostly oblong 
in shape, and varied in depth from 2 to 3 ft. 

Although the country was carefully searched in all 
directions, not a trace of another prehistoric grave 
was discovered, from which one may conclude, that 
the original colony was either a very small one, or 
that it has only occupied this district for a short 
period, and removed to some more congenial spot. 

3. A small temple or shrine was dedicated to the 
worship of Tahutmes III, and is situated to the 
W.-N-W. on the outskirts of the ancient town, and 
about fifty yards from the large temple discovered 
by Prof. Petrie about fourteen years ago. It was 
probably erected at the end of the XVIIIth, or 
beginning of XlXth Dynasty, and built of medium- 
si^ed sun-dried bricks. 

The design is simple, consisting of two courts, a 
terrace and three chambers beyond it. 

The front court, B, had two steps in the N.-\V. 
corner, ^ and six column bases, one of which was a 
sculptured slab originally belonging to a Xllth 
Dynasty tomb ; at the base of the eastern wall a 
Ptolemaic burial was found. 

The second court, D, contained four column bases, 
a flight of six steps, at the foot of which were four 
small stones, probably forming the base of an altar, 
E, also a beam made from the stem of a palm tree, 
which had originally formed part of the roof. The 
walls of both courts were covered with mud plaster 
whitewashed ; the upper portion had been decorated 
with figures, &c., in red, several fragments of which 
were found in the rubbish. 

The flight of steps leads up to the terrace, F ; this 
together with the chambers beyond are raised 
twenty inches above the level of the court, D. At 
the top of the steps are two pillar bases, one on either 
side ; in front of them is the sanctuary, G, on either 
side of which is a chamber, H and K, possibl}- 

1 For convenience of description, the temple is supposed to 
face due noitli. 



MEDINET GUROB. 



treasuries. In and near the entrance to chamber H 
a number of steles were found lying face downwards 
and mostly unbroken. Stele No. 13 was in three 
fragments, one in H and the other two in chamber 
K, which had a stone sill at the entrance. The 
remaining steles were found on the terrace, with the 
exception of No. 16, which was lying close to the 
steps in court D, and two large fragments inscribed 
with the name of Tahutmes III, discovered at a dis- 
tance of a few yards outside the entrance to the front 
court. The walls of the terrace and chambers were 
covered with whitewashed mud plaster, and smooth 
mud floors about two inches thick were throughout 
the whole building. The shaded portions at A and 
C were later additions, made possibly to improve the 
appearance of the structure. Abutting on the 
eastern portion of the temple, and running the whole 
length of the same, is a narrow enclosure with an 
entrance at each end, containing three recesses, M, N 
and O, and a flight of six steps, P. This enclose may 
have been used by those who had come some distance 
as a place in which to stable their beasts, while they 
attended the services in the temple ; the recesses 
would serve for storing fodder. 

At the N.-E. corner a portion of the enclosing wall 
had been broken down in order to make room for a 
grave during the Ptolemaic period. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE CEMETERY. 

4. Several types of burial were found. In one 
case the body had been placed in a roughlj'-made 
trench, dimensions 7 ft. x i ft. 9 in. x 3 ft., lying 
approximately N.-E. and S.-W., on the top of a large 
" kom " or eminence. Covering the body was a 
closely woven mat of grass, which was wonderfully 
well preserved considering that it dated from the 
XVIIIth Dynasty. Resting on the mat, and 
leaning against the end of the tomb at the right 
hand side of the head, was a large red earthenware 
pot (Pl. VII, i). When the upper mat was 
removed, the body was found lying wrapped in 
another mat, composed of sticks made from the ribs 
of the date palm, round which a rope had been 
bound to prevent its coming undone (Pl. VII, 2), 
beneath the head was a small two-handled vase 
(Pl. Ill, 99). On unwrapping the body, which was 



mummified in the usual way, the following articles 
of the toilet were found on the breast ; a copper 
mirror with a carved wooden handle of a very 
unusual pattern, a kohl tube, containing kohl, made 
out of the hollow stem of some reedy plant, and the 
usual wooden kohl-stick (Pl. IV, 35, 36, and ^y.) 

At a short distance from the above burial were 
found two shallow graves, each containing the body 
of a baby. Both graves were of the same measure- 
ment, viz., 3 ft. X I ft. X I ft. 6 in. In one case 
the body was wrapped in a mat composed of thin 
reeds, while at the head was placed a roundish lump 
of dried mud with a shallow depression at one end, 
perhaps meant to represent the usual burial jar. 
The grave was partly covered in with three mud 
bricks, each 12 in. x 6 in. x 3 in., placed end to 
end. On the breast were a number of dark blue 
glass pendants. 

In the other case the body was wrapped in what 
appeared to be a species of rush, bound tightly 
together at intervals with coarse rope. 

5. To the south of the town was a small 
cemetery for babies, which were buried in earthen- 
ware jars of an oval shape with two small handles, 
one on either side. The jars were evidently not 
originally intended for the purpose to which they 
had been put ; as in every case the mouth had been 
enlarged by breaking, in order to allow of the body 
being placed inside ; they were sealed with a cap 
composed of mud. The graves consisted of shallow 
pits from i ft. 6 in. to 2 ft. 6in. in depth, hollowed 
out of the friable rock. In two cases an earthenware 
dish had been placed upside down near the mouth 
of the jar. On Pl. VII, 4 are shown burial jars in 
position. 

6. An unusual type of coffin of the Ptolemaic 
period was found in one of the tombs. The tomb, 
which was of the XVIIIth Dynasty, was of the 
ordinary t3'pe with two chambers, one at either end 
of the shaft ; it had been re-used after having been 
opened and plundered in early times, as was evident 
from the accumulated sand which half-filled the 
chamber ; and it was on the top of this sand that 
the body had been placed. The coffin was a light 
framework composed of the ribs of palm leaves and 
decorated in green and pink, which had retained 
much of their freshness, especially at the head 
portion (Pl. XVIII, 3). 

The head, and breast of the mummy down to the 



ANIMAL SKULLS. 



knees, was covered with cartonnage, which was very 
much injured by insects. The body was wrapped in 
cloth in the usual way, and bound from chin to feet 
with thin strips of cloth arranged in a lattice-work 
pattern. 

On removing the outer covering an unusual state 
of affairs was found, viz., that only the chief bones 
had been preserved, and these were mostly dis- 
jointed ; those of the arms and legs lying on either 
side, and between them the ribs, pelvis, and vertebrae 
had been loosely arranged. These were all roughly 
bound in cloth and held together with reeds placed 
lengthwise. The feet of the mummy were repre- 
sented by a wreath of what appeared to have 
been flowers bound in cloth. The outer covering 
had been so skilfully arranged that the body 
presented nothing unusual until it had been un- 
wrapped. 

Several pottery coffins of the XVIIIth — XlXth 
Dynasties were found ; some quite plain, others 
roughly painted with the usual figures of the guard- 
ians of the dead, &c. 

On Pl. XVIII, 4, is a photographof a red earthen- 
ware coffin belonging to a late period. At the 
bottom of the same plate is an interesting group 
from a Roman grave, consisting of two pottery dolls, 
a lamp and an earthenware jar of the same shape, 
such as is often used at the present day on the 
" saqqieh," or water-wheel. 

7. Pl. XII, I shows a group of forty animal 
skulls, chiefly sheep, those of the rams having well- 
developed horns ; in the middle are three dogs' skulls. 
The whole series was found together near the top of 
the shaft of one of the tombs. In another tomb 
shaft, about three feet below the surface, a mass of 
skulls, a hundred and twenty-two in number, was 
found, chiefly those of the goat ; the rest consisting 
of sheep, two oxen, and five dogs. 

On the same plate, No. 3, is a photograph of a 
ram's head with an unusually fine pair of horns, also 
found in a tomb shaft. 



CHAPTER III. 



Near by were the ruins of a small village. The 
cemetery itself afforded very few facts as to its age, 
though it probably dated from the XlXth Dynasty, 
judging from the shape of several pots which were 
found in one of the graves (Pl. Ill, 54, ']■]., and 79). 
It may roughly be divided into two portions, one 
adjacent to the cultivated land and extending a short 
distance into the desert, which contained the bodies 
of oxen and goats ; while the other, which was still 
further in the desert, was almost entirely occupied 
with the remains of fish. 

The oxen and goats were buried in shallow 
irregular pits, varying in depth from eighteen inches 
to two feet. In nearly every pit there were more than 
one animal buried, but only of one species ; and 
generally without any kind of order, i.e., one on the 
top or lying across the other. In some cases only a 
confused mass was discernable ; this may be owing to' 
the graves having been reopened from time to time 
to receive the animals as they died. There were no 
indications that the animals had been mummified, 
though in one grave several of the heads of the oxen 
still retained portions of cloth adhering to them. 

9. Many of the goats and oxen had long horns, a 
point of some interest, as the Egyptian cattle at the 
present day have, generally speaking, very short horns, 
a characteristic of the Syrian cattle, which have been 
largely introduced in comparatively recent times and 
taken the place of the original breed. Mr. Oldfield 
Thomas, of the Natural History Museum, kindly 
supplied us with the measurements of one of the best 
goats' heads, viz : — ■ 

I ft. lOtV in. along the outside curve. 

I ft. 7 in. from tip to tip. 
Pl. XI shows four graves containing oxen and 
goats respectively. 

1. The bodies of two oxen. 

2. The pit was roughly 6 ft. square, and contained 
three adult and three young goats. 

3. A very irregularly shaped pit, about 22 ft. long 
by 19 ft. wide, containing a confused mass of skeletons 
of oxen and two or three calves. 

4. This pit was 6 ft. long and 4 ft. 6 in. wide, and 
contained four adult goats. 



THE ANIMAL CEMETERY. jQ. The portion of the cemetery devoted to fish 

Pls VIII XIII burials differed in several points from that in which 

the o.xen and goats were buried. F"or one thing the 

8. A cemetery of animals lay a quarter of a mile pits were more carefully dug, many being occupied by 

to the South of that containing the human burials, a single fish, and in those cases in which two or more 

I 



THE ANIMAL CEMETERY. 



were buried together, a certain arrangement was 
observed; they were either side by side, or in layers, 
and sometimes head to tail. Another point of 
difference lies in the fact that in nearly every case 
where fish were concerned a packing of fine grass 
ashes, probably " halfa," was used as a preservative. 

The fish was placed on a thick la\'er of this, and 
covered up with the same material ; while in the 
case of large specimens the mouth and openings 
behind the gill covers were packed with the same. 

In a few of the largest fish, a slit had been made 
along the ventral surface of the body, and the cavity 
was stuffed with ashes. 

The greater number of the fish were Lates nilotiais, 
sometimes known by the name of the Nile perch ; 
a few specimens of three other well-known Nile 
species were also found, but in no case were different 
species placed together in the same pit. A few 
specimens were found wrapped in cloth. 

As a fish cemetery of this description has, as far 
as I am aware, not been previously described, it has 
been considered advisable to give a more or less 
detailed description of each pit ; the numbers indi- 
cating each pit will be found to correspond to those 
used in the plan of the cemetery on Pl. XIII. 

11. I. Lates nilotiais. Pits i to iia. 

Dimensions of the pit, 4 ft. long by 3 ft wide, by 
I ft. 18 in. deep. Contents, Seven fish, averaging 
3 ft. in length ; four small lots of bones, three wrapped 
in dried grass, and one in cloth ; also a complete fish, 
likewise wrapped in grass ; these bundles were 
removed and photographed together (Pl. IX, 3). 

2. Pit, 5 ft. 6in. X 3 ft. 3 in. x i ft. 6 in. (Pl VIII, 
2.) Ten fish of various sizes Ij'ing one on the top of 
the other. 

2n. A mass of loose fish bones. 

3. Pit, 6 ft. X 4 ft, X 3 ft. (Pl. IX, i). 

Twenty or more fish of various sizes lying one on 
the top of the other. 

At one side of the pit a complete fish was found 
bound up in dried grass ; on the other, a number of 
bones likewise bound up in grass. Under these was 
one of the large opercular bones wrapped in a piece 
of cloth, and a little further were a number of bones 
fastened up in a piece of reed matting. In nearly 
every case the bones in these bundles proved to be 
either those of the head or vertebral column, and 
with one exception, which will be mentioned later on, 
all the fish were preserved whole. The preservation 
even of odd bones reveals to us with what reverence 



certain fish were held by the ancient Eg3'ptians, 
more especially Lates niloticus, which is known to the 
natives by various names in different localities ; for 
example, this species is found mummified in various 
parts of the country, although the chief city for the 
veneration of Lates was Latopolis, identified with the 
modern town of Esneh in Upper Egypt. The Greeks 
realized this when they gave it the name of Latopolis. 
3(•^. A circular pit in close proximity to No. 3. 
6 ft. 6 in. deep and 4 ft. 10 in. in diameter, lined with 
mud bricks to a height of 3 ft. 10 in. from the bottom ; 
nearly every brick was stamped with the cartouche 
of Rameses II. It was filled with sand, amongst 
which were found two heads of Z.. niloticus, a few 
fish bones, and a scrap of reed mat ; these had most 
likely got in by chance, the pit having probably 
been originally used as a receptacle for holding 
grain. 

4. Pit, 4 ft. g in. X 2 ft. 6 in. x i ft. 5 in. 

A large number of fish, mostly of a small size, lying 
one on the top of the other. 

5. Pit, 5 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 

Five fair-sized fish, but in this case no preservative 
had been used. 

6. Pit, 6 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. x i ft. 6in. (Pl.VIII, 3). 
A single large specimen. 

7. A single specimen oi Lates (Pl. VIII, 4). 

The pit was about 3 ft. 6 in. deep. Close to the 
fish, but nearer the surface, was the body of a small 
lamb or kid. In this case, and in a few others, 
animals belonging to totally distinct orders were 
found in close proximity to one another ; this was 
evidently due to chance and not intentional, as from 
the nature of the ground a pit when once filled in 
would in a short period become more or less ob- 
literated. Near the fish was a portion of a circular 
pit loosely lined with grass, which had evidently 
been partly destroyed in order to make room for the 
fish. The object of this pit is unknown to me. 

8. Pit, 4 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 
About twelve fish, but no preservative. 

g. In this case three separate burials at different 
times had been made close together, and consisted 
of two L. niloticus and a sheep. The sheep was lying 
on its side at a depth of about 2 ft. 6 in., and the two 
fish, one of which was lying across the other, at 3 ft. 
and 4 ft. respectively. The former was a fine speci- 
men, whose head measured 21 in. taken from the tip 
of the snout to the outer edge of the operculum or 
gill cover. 

10. Pit, 6 ft. X 2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 9 in. 



DESCRIPTION OF BURIALS. 



A single large fish, measuring 5 ft. 6 in. in length 
and nearly 2 ft. in depth, had the mouth and gill 
openings filled with ashes. Several specimens were 
found measuring 5 ft. or more. At the present day 
it is but rarely that one comes across large speci- 
mens, as during the three years in which I was 
engaged in making the Nile Fish Surve}', I only saw 
two examples of unusual size, one was at Assuan 
which measured above 4 ft. in length, although I 
was told that occasionally much larger specimens 
were caught there ; but as an Arab's idea of measure- 
ment is somewhat vague, too much reliance cannot 
be placed in what he says. The other was a splendid 
fish obtained by Captain Bainbridge a few miles up 
the Sobai River, who kindly supplied me with the 
following measurements : length, 6 ft. i in., girth, 4 ft. 
7 in., and 266| lbs. in weight. The only other place 
where I obtained information as to large specimens 
being obtained was in the Fayoum, on the shores of 
the large lake known as the Birket Karun. An in- 
teresting point arises as to the locality from which 
the large specimens of this species found in the 
cemeteries were obtained. The Birket Karun and the 
Nile are too far away, the distance being nearly thirty 
miles in the former, and above six in the latter case. 
The only other fishing-ground in the district is the 
Bahr Yusef, which passes only a short distance from 
Gurob. At the present day, however, no unusually 
large fish are obtained, as far as I could learn ; this 
would be accounted for by the fact that the Bahr 
Yusef is thoroughly fished throughout the length of 
its course, thus reducing enormously the chance of 
any individual fish living long enough to attain 
unusual size. 

11. Pit, 7 ft. X 3 ft. X 2 ft. 6 in. 

A single fish measuring 5 ft. 2 in. in length. 

iia. Pit, 7 ft. X 2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. (Pl. VIII, i). 

A single fish 5 ft. i in. in length, the pit containing 
this specimen was so close to that of No. 11 that a 
single photograph was obtained bringing in both 
fish. 

12. Two goats (Pl. XII, 2). 
Lying side by side in a shallow pit. 

13. Fragments of what appeared to be mats made 
of coarse string or twine, and portions of cloth mixed 
up with a quantity of ashes. 

14. Synodontis schal (Pl. IX, 4). 

A circular pit 2 ft. in diameter and 2 ft. 6 in. deep. 
A portion of a grass mat was lying close to the fish, 
in which it had probably been originally wrapped. 
On the other side were the remains of another fish. 



but too much broken to be identified with certainty 
This was the only example of this species found. 

15. This pit contained a curious mixture of 
objects placed at various levels. At the top, about 
a foot below the surface, was an unbroken pot 
of red earthenware (Pl. Ill, 54), a number of frag- 
ments of pottery, and three curiously-shaped sticks 
pointed at one end (Pl. VI, 10), which looked as if 
they might have been used for tethering sheep or 
goats, a common practice at the present day ; 
immediately below these was a wooden model of 
a fish, perhaps bates (Pl. VI, 8), or it might possibly 
only be typical of fish in general, and a large pot 
(Pl. Ill, ']']) with a portion of the rope by which it 
had been carried still fastened round it. Below 
these again, were the leg bone and part of the lower 
jaw of a sheep or goat, a pot (Pl. Ill, 79), a small 
oblong piece of wood with a hole in the middle of 
it, and a small well-carved model of a face in 
wood with some of the paint still adhering to it 
(Pl. VI, 9). 

16. L. niloticus. Pit, 3 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. x i ft. 6 in. 
A few small fish, and a portion of the vertebral 

column of a large specimen wrapped in a piece of 
cloth. 

17. L. uilotiais. Pit, 6 ft. x 2 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. 
One large fish. 

18. Sheep. Pit, 4 ft. x 3 ft. x 3 ft. 

Lying on its side. In the region of the pelvis was 
found the skeleton of a lamb just ready for birth. 
Only a little ash was found underneath the body. 

19. L. niloticus. Pit, 6 ft. x 2 ft. x i ft. 6 in. 
Single specimen 5 ft. 6 in. in length. No pre- 
servatives had been used. 

20. A shallow pit containing several loom weights, 
oval in shape and made of mud, with the cords for 
hanging them by still intact. 

21. L. niloticus (Pl. X, 2). 

This was a fair-sized fish ; close to the head and 
practically resting on the body was a loosely-woven 
grass basket not unlike an old-fashioned beehive, 
but much larger. The basket contained nothing 
but sand, which had leaked in as the basket de- 
cayed, the object of it being placed above the fish 
is unknown to me. At the head was a circular 
brick-lined pit, part of whose side had been broken 
away to make room for the fish. 

22. Bagrus doc mac. 

An egg-shaped pit 3ft. Sin. long about 2ft. wide 
and 3 ft. deep. No preservative had been used. 

23. Bagrus docinac {Fh. X, i). 



OBJECTS DISCOVERED. 



Also an egg-shaped pit 2 ft. 8 in. x i ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 
The ugual preservative had been used. 

24. L. niloticHS. Pit, 5 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. 
The fish measured 5 ft. in length. 

25. L. niloticus. Pit, 3 ft. x i ft. g in. x i ft. 6 in. 
A single fish which, besides being preserved in the 

usual way, was wrapped in cloth. 

26. L. niloticus. Pit, 6 ft. x 2 ft. x 2 ft. 3 in. 

A large specimen measuring nearly 6 ft. in length. 

27. L. niloticus. Pit, 5 ft. x i ft. 6 in. x i ft. 6 in. 
Single specimen with traces of a cloth bandage on 

the head. 

28. L. niloticus. Pit, 5 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 
A single fish 5 ft. in length. 

29. Cat. 

A small oval pit, i ft. 9 in. x i ft. 3 in. x i ft. 9 in. 
The only specimen of this species found. There 
were no indications that it had been mummified. 

31. L. niloticus. 

A number of small fish laid in a heap. 

32. L. niloticus. 

33. L. niloticus. 

A number of specimens of various sizes. 

34. L. niloticus. Pit, 3 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 
An oval pit, several fish preserved in the usual 

way. 

35. A square pit, 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 4 ft. 
Containing a large quantity of ashes and a mass 

of cloth mi.xed up together, but no trace of animal 
remains. 

36. L. niloticus. Pit, 3 ft. 6 in x 2 ft. x 3 ft. 6 in. 
A mass of small fish carefull}- laid head to tail and 

several layers deep. 

37. L. niloticus. Pit, 5 ft. x 3 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. 
Two fairlv large specimens lying side by side. 

38. L. niloticus. Pit, 3 ft. 8 in. x i ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 
S in. 

A single fish. 

39. Bagrus docniac. Pit, 6 ft. x 4 ft. x 4 ft. 
After removing about twelve inches of the surface 

sand, a layer composed chiefly of "halfa" grass, 
pieces of rope and sticks mixed with ashes was 
revealed (Pl. X 3). Below these was a layer of 
ashes about 2 ft. in thickness containing scraps of 
grass ; while at the bottom were three medium-sized 
fish lying on their backs in a thick layer of ashes, 
the body cavities, mouths, and gill openings were 
filled with the same (Pl. X, 4). 

40. Clarias larscra. Pit, 4 ft. x 2 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 
About a foot below the surface was a small mat 

2 ft. long X 10 in. wide, made of thin reeds neatly 



fastened together with twine ; while coiled up at the 
top was a fragment of rope (Pl. IX, 2). 

When the mat was removed the heads of three 
small fish were found, below these again at a depth 
of about 12 in. was a single large specimen of the 
same species. 

41. Dog (Pl. XII, 4). Circular pit, i ft. 6 in. 
each way. 

The animal was lying in a curled-up position, k 
fine piece of twine was found tied round the neck. 
No preservative had been used. 

42 — 45. L. niloticus. 

46. Contained a sheep placed in an upright 
position. A few inches below it, in the sand, were 
several L. niloticus. The sheep was most likely a 
later burial. 

47 — 49. L. niloticus. 

50. Contained the head of a ram, with a fine pair 
of horns. 



CHAPTER IV. 

OBJECTS DISCOVERED. 

12. POTTER Y. Ph. I, H, ///.—The usual types 
common to the XVTIIth and XlXth Dynasties were 
fairly well represented. 

On Pl. I, nos. 14 and 15 are graceful in shape and 
somewhat elaborately decorated in various colours. 

On Pl. Ill, nos. 56 — 62 were found together; 57 
contained some date seeds, and 62 is meant to be a 
model of a pig in pottery. 

A considerable quantity of pottery of foreign 
origin was found in the tombs, but on account of its 
rather fragile character a great deal of it had been 
broken when the graves were disturbed. 

On Pl. Ill, nos. 80 — 108 show nearly all the types 
of pottery of foreign origin found at Gurob, with the 
exception of nos. 95 and 96, which came from 
Sedment, situated some few miles away. The greater 
number are Phoenician, made in imitation of leather 
bottles. 

Nos. 81, 82, 83, 95, 96 are blackish with pale 
yellow lines. 

Nos. 97, 98, 99 are Cypriote pilgrim bottles. 

13. SCARABS, etc., Pl. /F.— Only a few of the 
scarabs found call for any particular notice, viz. : — 

No. 8. Formed part of a burnt deposit (described 
in Petrie, lllahun, 16), found in one of the houses of 



SHABTIS. 



the town, and records, " Rameses possessing the 
ninth Sed-festival ? "' 

No. g. In black obsidian, inscribed with the names 
of Tahutmes IV and Nefertari, a queen hitherto 
unknown at this period. 

No. 12. In glazed steatite, with the name of Queen 
Hatshepsut. 

No. 13. Kohl tube of pale green glaze. 

No. 14. Figure of the goddess Ta-urt in dark blue 
glazed pottery. 

No. 21. Glass kohl tube in the form of a papyrus 
capital inlaid in black. 

No. 22. A model of a hand and arm in ivory, used 
for decorating the top of a dancer's wand. 

No. 23. A blue glazed pottery dish, found in the 
same tomb as No. 22. The design is well executed 
and represents the common Nile fish Tilapia nilotica, 
locally known as boltc. Coming out of its mouth, 
and attached to the caudal region of the body are 
what appears to be lotus buds, which are often 
associated with this fish for decorative purposes. 

Nos. 24 — 28. An interesting group of objects found 
in the same tomb, consisting of a heart amulet of 
inlaid glass, a kohl tube in the form of a papyrus 
capital of dark blue glass beautifully inlaid in white, 
jellow, and pale blue, a kohl-stick of polished black 
haematite, with the words, " Royal scribe Men- 
kheper," an alabaster ear plug, and an ornament 
made out of a shell. 

No. 29. A small ivory figure of the god Bes. 

No. 31 and 32. The back and front of a pottery 
pectoral, originally covered with gold leaf and inlaid 
with oblong pieces of different coloured glaze. 

No. 33. An alabaster toilet dish cut in the form of 
the bolte fish. 

No. 34. A prehistoric copper pin. 

No. 38. A wooden wand made in the form of a 
bouquet of conjointed flowers found in the temple. 
(Pl. XIV). 

No. 39. An ivory toilet box, probably used for 
holding trinkets. 

No. 3ga. Another view of the same. 

No. 41. A piece of wood found in the temple 
(Pl. XIV), inscribed " Sebek in Shedt, Horus in 
Shedt " (?), the usual titles of the god Sebek. 

No. 42. A portion of a glazed kohl-tube with the 
name of Amenhotep III. 

No. 43. A blue glass cup. 

No. 44. The under surface of a portion of a shallow 
pottery dish, decorated with outline drawings in 
black. 



14. On Pl. V are represented some of the types 
of shabtiu figures found in the tombs. 

Nos. I — 5, of red pottery with blue wigs. 

Nos. 6 and 7. Pottery covered with a white wash. 

No. II. Blue glaze, recording the name of Mer-ra, 
superintendent of cattle, whose tomb is shown on 
Pl. XVII. 

No. 12. Also in blue glaze, with the name of 
Khamuas. 

No. 15. Of dried mud, painted a carmine colour. 

Nos. 16 and 18 were of limestone. 

15. STELES. Pis. XV-XIX. All the steles 
with the exception of that figured on Pl. XIX, were 
found in the small temple (Pl. XIV). The numbers 
at the right-hand bottom corners of the steles 
correspond to those in the plan, which show the 
exact position in which each was found. 

Plate XV. I. A painted stele, showing the figure, 
much defaced, of a worshipper before Set ; the 
inscription reads, " Made by the superintendent 
of the king's (?) throne." 

2. Is well cut, and much of the colour has been 
preserved. It shows a worshipper adoring Tahut- 
mes III. The figures are in red; the crown, the 
ankh and crook held by the king, the dais and 
likewise the ornaments of both are blue. The throne 
has a design in blue and red, and the inscription in 
black, which reads, " Giving praise to thy ka, O 
Menkheperra, son of Amon, may he give life, 
prosperity and health, readiness of face, praise and 
love to the ka of the royal chamberlain of the king 
of the two lands, Rameses-em-per-Ra." 

3. Stele of Pashedu adoring Tahutmes III. 

4. Figures of a man and woman adoring Osiris. 

5. A fragment of a stele showing a figure of a 
king coloured red, probably Tahutmes III, sitting 
in his pavilion and holding in his right hand a 
sistrum. 

Plate XVI. I. A painted stele in bad preserva- 
tion, showing a man, a woman, and a small child 
adoring Kheper-kha-(?)ra (Usertesen II ?). 

The figures are coloured red, the crown of the 
king blue, the garments of the man white with 
red lines, and the hieroglyphics and hair of the 
woman black ; on the child's head is a wreath of 
flowers. 

2. Two worshippers in adoration before the king. 
The figures are coloured in red, the helmet, dais and 
hieroglyphics in blue. The inscription seems to 
read, " Made by ? the superintendent of the .... ? 



OBJECTS DISCOVERED. 



of his majesty (i.e. of Tahutmes III ?) Pay and the 
lady Hent-taui." 

3. A worshipper adoring Tahutmes III. The 
figures and hnes between the inscription are in red : 
the crown of the king and the necklaces of both are 
blue. The inscription reads, " Givingplace to thelord 
of the two lands, obeisance to the son of Amon : that 
he may give good age in seeing his beauties : to the 
ka of the attendant of the house of ... . Zarui." 
There is also a photograph of this stele on Pl. 
XVIII. 

5. An interesting stele, but unfortunately in bad 
preservation. The upper register shows Tahutmes 
III adoring Hershafe (Hershefi), the god of the 
district, whose large temple at Ehnasya (Heracleo- 
polis Magna) about six miles distant, was cleared 
by Professor Petrie this year. The lower register 
shows a worshipper adoring Sebek. The inscrip- 
tion at the foot reads, " his name flourisheth, the 
draughtsman Neb-neteru. 

6. A figure of the king, probably Tahutmes III. 

7. Part of the inscription of a large stele found 
at Sedment, which must have originally come 
from Heracleopolis Magna. The inscription reads, 
" Hershafi king of the two lands, may he give life 
health and prosperity to the chief singer? of HnAs 
(Heracleopolis Magna) Merna. By his son who 
makes his name live, the scribe Kha." 



16. Plate XIX. This stele was found close to 



the animal cemetery, and had been utilized to form 
part of the lining of a shallow oblong pit. 

The inscription over the figures reads, "Amon re, 
the bull, who lifts the arm, of lofty plumes, the 
great." "The prophet of Amonresonther (Amon 
of Karnak), the chief captain of the whole land, 
Thekat." Below, " Dedication of fifty arouras of 
land called (?) Aifma (?), to Amonre of lofty plumes, 
the great, done by the chief prophet of Amon- 
rasonther, the captain and leader Thekat . . . . : 
the priest of Amonre (?) Pgay son of Nesptah. 
Done in the presence of the commissioner (?) the 
superintendent of the treasury of the house of 
Amon-Nes-somtu, son of A ... ., and the superin- 
tendent of the granary of Sekhemkheperu Boken- 
[nifl ?]." A photograph of this stele is shown on 
Pl. XVHI. 

The inscription of Piankhi names the " House of 
Sekhemkheperu " as a locality south of Medum and 
north of Oxyrhj-nchus. The present text indicates 
that it may be the name of Gurob in these later 
days. It cannot be earlier than the XXIInd Dynasty, 
being found with the prenomen of Osorkon I. The 
name Thekat may well be an error for Thekerat, 
who was high priest of Amen in the 23rd year of 
Pedubast, ']})i B.C. (see Aeg. Zeit. xxxiv. 114, No. 29). 

Mr. LI. Griffith kindly supplied me with trans- 
lations of the inscriptions on the steles, etc. 

I should also like to express my indebtedness to 
Prof F. Petrie for his advice and assistance while 
preparing this report. 



PRINTED BY GILISERT AND KIVINGTON LIMITED, ST. JOHN'S HOUSE, CLERKENWELL, LONDON, E.C. 



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GUROB; POTTERY, XVIII-XIX DYN. 



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GUROB; STELES AND SHABTI JAR, XVlll-XIX DYN. 



XVI 




GUROB; STELES, ETC., XIX DYN. 



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4 HEAD OF CYPRIOTE 
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5. THREE HANDLED XVIII DYN- VASE 



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GUROB; STELES, ETC. 



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